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Ch. 11 Sh.1
भावाभावविकारश्च स्वभावादिति निश्चयी ।
निर्विकारो गतक्लेशः सुखेनैवोपशाम्यति ॥ ११-१॥
भाव अभाव विकारः च स्वभावात् जायते इति निश्चयी निर्विकारः गतक्लेशः सुखेन एव उपशाम्यति
भाव- existence, presence अभाव- non-existence, absence विकारः-change च-and स्वभावात् -is inherent nature जायते-are इति-thus निश्चयी-one who has conviction निर्विकारः-unaltered, unpertubed गतक्लेशः (गत-gone क्लेशः-affliction, pain) – free from pain सुखेन-easily, comfortably एव-only उपशाम्यति –comes to peace
One who has understood that existence, non-existence and modification are inherent in things, he becomes unperturbed, free from pain caused by our attachment to transitory objects.
भाव अभाव विकारः च स्वभावात् जायते इति निश्चयी –change of things and circumstances in the form of existence, non-existence is the natural process of things. For one who has realized this truth, follows stillness, serenity and bliss.
निश्चय means firm opinion, decision निश्चयी is one who has form opinion or decision
निर्विकारः गतक्लेशः सुखेन एव उपशाम्यति –One who remains non-reactive to such natural phenomenon finds great amount of peace in his heart. A man who reacts to changes is like one who sits on the seashore and bemoans that the waves are rising and disappearing. Tatva bodha says:
अस्ति जायते वर्धते विपरिणमते अपक्षीयते विनश्यतीति to exist, to take birth, to grow, to mature, to decay and to die are the natural phenomenon of an object of the world.
Ch. 11 Sh.2
ईश्वरः सर्वनिर्माता नेहान्य इति निश्चयी ।
अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशः शान्तः क्वापि न सज्जते ॥ ११-२॥
ईश्वरः-God सर्वनिर्माता (सर्व-all निर्माता-creatot)-creator of all न-not इह-heere अन्यः-other अस्ति- is there इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is sure, convinced अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशाः (अन्तर्-within गलित-lost, loosend, dissolved सर्व-all आशाः-hope, expectation)-with all desires lost, शान्तः-calm क्वा-to what अपि-at all न-not सज्जते-is attached.
Knowing for sure that Ishwara is the creator of all and there is none else here, one becomes peaceful within. All his desires get set at rest. Then how can there be anything to which one gets attached?
ईश्वरः सर्वनिर्माता न इह न अस्ति अन्यः इति निश्चयी – Knowing for sure that Ishwara is the creator of all and there is none else here, other than Ishwara. Ishwara is the great reality. From Him, the world of plurality is projected. The created world cannot be anything other than the creating material. The one that is created is only another form of the creator. Ornaments created from gold cannot be different from gold.
अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशाः (अन्तर् गलित सर्व आशाः) शान्तः क्वा अपि न सज्जते
All the desires in his heart get dissolved. The seeker is convinced that there is nothing other than self in this world and he seeks self alone to the exclusion of every visible objects. His agitations and craving of the mind set at naught because he is left with nothing to be desired. He becomes peaceful and calm. In view of this, how can such a seeker become anything but peaceful?
Ch. 11 Sh.3
आपदः सम्पदः काले दैवादेवेति निश्चयी ।
तृप्तः स्वस्थेन्द्रियो नित्यं न वान्छति न शोचति ॥ ११-३॥
आपदः सम्पदः काले दैवात् एव भवन्ति इति निश्चयी तृप्तः स्वस्थेन्द्रियः नित्यम् न वान्छति न शोचति ॥ ११-३॥
आपदः-adversities सम्पदः-prosperity काले-in time दैवात्-from destiny, fate एव-only भवन्ति- happen इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is sure तृप्तः-contended स्वस्थेन्द्रियः (स्वस्थ-self-abiding इन्द्रियः-senses)-with all the senses well controlled नित्यम्-always, for ever न-not वान्छति-wants, desires न-not शोचति-grieves
One who knows for certain that adversity and prosperity come and go in their own time according to past karma, remains ever contended. He always abides in self. He does not desire for what is not attained, nor does he grieve for what is lost. So, all his senses are in his control.
आपदः सम्पदः काले दैवात् एव इति निश्चयी –misfortunes and fortunes come to us in their own time. A seeker knows that he has to face these vissitudes of life with stoic calm. He accepts all the things and events as inevitable submission to fate. He has no control over them. He has to exhaust his vasanas in order to attain the goal of liberation. He always abides in self. Mukunda mala says यद्यत् भवतु भगवन् धर्म कर्मानुरूपम्
तृप्तः स्वस्थेन्द्रियः नित्यम् न वान्छति न शोचति –He remains contended with whatever comes to him; and has no desire for what is not got. He does not desire for what is not attained nor grieves for what is lost beause he has complee control over the senses. Control over the senses is technically called dama (दम) and control over the mind is called shama (शम).
Astavakra is not advocating the docrine of fatalism. A commenor is advised to plan and execute his actions without being too much attached to its result. An advanced yogi who has travelled some mileage in the path of liberation has to realize the doctrine of karma and unless he follows this method advocated in this shloka he cannot progress further.
In Gita chapter 12:17 the same advice is given.
योन हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।
शुभाशुभपरित्यागी भक्तिमान्य: स मे प्रिय:
He who does not rejoice, does not fret, does not lament, does not hanker, who gives up good and bad, who is filled with devotion-he is dear to me.
Ch. 11 Sh.4
सुखदुःखे जन्ममृत्यू दैवादेवेति निश्चयी ।
साध्यादर्शी निरायासः कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते ॥ ११-४॥
सुखदुःखे जन्ममृत्यू दैवात् एव भवंति इति निश्चयी साध्यादर्शी निरायासः कुर्वन् अपि न लिप्यते ॥ ११-४॥
सुखदुःखे (सुख-joy दुःखे-pain)-in happiness and sorrow जन्ममृत्यू (जन्म-birth मृत्यू-death)-birth and death दैवात्-from fate एव-only भवंति- happen इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is sure साध्यादर्शी (साध्य-accomplishment आदर्शी-not seeking, ignoring)-not seeking after goals of life निरायासः-free from efforts कुर्वन् -doing अपि-even न-not लिप्यते-tainted, attached
One who knows for certain that happiness and misery, birth and death, come and go according to one’s karma seeks nothing to accomplish. He is not attached to actions although he is engaged in actions.
सुखदुःखे जन्ममृत्यू दैवात् एव इति निश्चयी –A yogi has courage of his conviction that birth and death, joy and sorrow are predetermined by the law of karma. Still he does all actions of the world expected of a good man but does not get attached to them.
साध्यादर्शी निरायासः कुर्वन्न अपि न लिप्यते – One who doesn’t seek the ordinary goals of life, although engages in action effortlessly, does not get attached to it or tainted by it. साध्य- means accomplishment आदर्शी-not seeking. Such a yogi does not seek any accomplishment of his action. He does it for the satisfaction of the Lord and as a service to Lord. He does not aim at any benefit for himself. So, his actions become free from karmic consequences.
What is the difference between the actions done by a yogi and a samsari? The farmer engages in all actions without any attachment to the results. He is not trapped in the actions or their rewards. He engages in actions out of joy of the self. On the other hand, the samsari engages in actions for the reward it promises. So, he gets attached to it and therefore the consequences follow. He gets more desire for more results. He gets into the trap of karma. The yogi’s actions are natural to him. So, it is called निरायासः-free from efforts.
All actions do not necessarily entail bondage upon us. Only when they are performed with attachment and egoism, they do so. But having transcended the ego and all attachment through the realization of the Self, a man can easily be engaged in action and yet remain unattached and free. He is like an electrician working on live wire with insulated gloves.
Ch. 11 Sh.5
चिन्तया जायते दुःखं नान्यथेहेति निश्चयी ।
तया हीनः सुखी शान्तः सर्वत्र गलितस्पृहः ॥ ११-५॥
चिन्तया जायते दुःखम् न अन्यथा इह इति निश्चयी तया हीनः सुखी शान्तः सर्वत्र गलितस्पृहः ॥ ११-५॥
चिन्तया-through worry, anxiety जायते-is born, produced दुःखम्-suffering न-not अन्यथा-otherwise इह-here इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is sure तया-from that worry हीनः-devoid सुखी-happy शान्तः-peaceful सर्वत्र-everywhere गलितस्पृहः (गलित- dissolved स्पृहः-desire) –with desires meled away.
One who has understood that it is anxiety and worry cause anything but sorrow in the world, becomes free from it and becomes happy and peaceful everywhere with his desires melted away.
चिन्तया जायते दुःखम् न अन्यथा इह इति निश्चयी –It is only anxiety and worry and nothing else that breeds sorrow. A yogi has courage of this conviction in him.
तया हीनः सुखी शान्तः सर्वत्र गलितस्पृहः – So, one who is devoid of anxiety and worry, becomes happy and peaceful and freed of all desires.
The preceeding two verses indicate that suffering comes through karma and thus inevitable. Swami Chinmayananda adds, “Suffering is a mental condition, the more the agitations, the more the sorrow.” The yogi is convinced that happiness as well as suffering is the product of karma. So, he has very little to change its course. He has only to exhaust the karma by suffering. So, his desires have melted away. No desires, no attachments.
Ch. 11 Sh.6
नाहं देहो न मे देहो बोधोऽहमिति निश्चयी ।
कैवल्यं इव सम्प्राप्तो न स्मरत्यकृतं कृतम् ॥ ११-६॥
न अहम् देहः न मे देहःबोधः अहम् इति निश्चयी कैवल्यम् इव सम्प्राप्तः न स्मरति अत्कृतम् कृतम्
न- not अहम्-I देहः-body न-not मे-of me देहः-body बोधः-pure inelligence, awareness अहम्-I इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is certain कैवल्यम्-the state of absoluteness इव-as if सम्प्राप्तः-attained न-not स्मरति-remembers अत्कृतम्-not done कृतम् -or done
“I am not the body, nor is the body my possession—I am Awareness itself.” One who realizes this for certain has no memory of things done or left undone. There is only the infinite reality.
नाहं देहो न मे देहो बोधोऽहमिति निश्चयी –A yogi has understood with certainity that, “I am not the body, nor the body is my possession. I am awareness itself”.
कैवल्यम् इव सम्प्राप्तो न स्मरति अत्कृतम् कृतम् –I am awareness itself. One who realizes this for certain has no memory of things done or left undone. There is only the pure awareness.
Work done or undone pertains to the body and mind but not to the self. Since the yogi has disowned his body and its attachments, he is unconcerned with the commissions or omissions of the body. He has attained the absolute self or कैवल्यम्.
Ch. 11 Sh.7
आब्रह्मस्तम्बपर्यन्तमहमेवेति निश्चयी ।
निर्विकल्पः शुचिः शान्तः प्राप्ताप्राप्तविनिर्वृतः ॥ ११-७॥
आब्रह्म स्तम्ब पर्यन्तम् अहम् एव इति निश्चयी निर्विकल्पः शुचिः शान्तः प्राप्त अप्राप्त विनिर्वृतः ॥ ११-७॥
आ ब्रह्मा (आ-from ब्रह्मा-creator)-from the creator down to स्तम्ब-tuft of grass पर्यन्तम्-including अहम्-I एव-alone इति-thus निश्चयी-one who knows or sure निर्विकल्पः-free from oscillation of thought शुचिः-pure शान्तः- peacefull प्राप्त- what is attained and अप्राप्त-what is not attained भवति- becomes विनिर्वृतः- turned away from, withdrawn from.
“From Brahma to the last blade of grass–I alone exist.” One who knows this for certain becomes immaculate, serene, unconflicted. Attainment has no meaning.
आब्रह्म स्तम्ब पर्यन्तम् अहम् एव इति निश्चयी –One who has ascertained that right from Brahma, the creator to the last blade of grass that “I alone exist”.
निर्विकल्पः शुचिः शान्तः प्राप्त अप्राप्त विनिर्वृतः – becomes free from the oscillation of thought, pure and peaceful. He turns away from what is attained or what is not attained. “I am everyting, the universal existence”. The mind has been defined as संकल्प विकल्पात्मकम् or of deciding and doubting nature. This is the function of the mind. It has to be curious about objects and seek knowledge of them constantly. With the help of intellect and memory it gets a complete experience of the object.
निर्विकल्पः free from vikalpa. Vikalpa means indecision or doubt. Nirvikalpa means free from oscillation, doubt. Determination as well as doubt are mental processes. The one who is identified with the all- pervading Brahman has no mind or senses organs. So, no determination or doubt is possible. When the thoughts of objects and desires and attachments are not feeding the mind, it becomes calm and composed. Such a mind is called pure and tranquil. शुचिः शान्तः. That mind is unconcerned with what has been or not has been achieved or accomplished. It becomes immaculate. It becomes free because there is nothing to attain or gain. (प्राप्ति अप्राप्ति). It is already purna or complete.
Ch. 11 Sh.8
नानाश्चर्यम् विश्वं न किंचिदिति निश्चयी ।
निर्वासनः स्फूर्तिमात्रो न किंचिदिव शाम्यति ॥ ११-८॥
नाना आश्चर्यम् विश्वम् न किंचित् इति निश्चयी निर्वासनः स्फूर्तिमात्रः न किंचित् इव शाम्यति
नानाश्चर्यम् (नाना-manifold आश्चर्यम्-amazing)-manifold and marvellous इदम्-this विश्वम्-universe न-not किंचित्-anything इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is sure निर्वासनः-free from desires स्फूर्तिमात्रः (स्फूर्ति-sparkling, shining मात्रः-made of alone)-pure intelligence, awareness न -not- किंचित्- anything इव-as if शाम्यति-comes to peace
One who knows for certain that this manifold and marvelllous universe is nothing because it is unreal. He becomes desireless awareness. He finds peace since nothing exists.
नानाश्चर्यम् इदम् विश्वम् न किंचित् इति निश्चयी – He, who has realized for sure that this marvellous and wonderful universe is nothing because it is unreal.
निर्वासनः स्फूर्तिमात्रः न किंचित् इव शाम्यति –He becomes desireless pure intelligence. He lives peacefully as if nothing exists other than him.
Though living in the body, he may perceive the existence of universe, yet his inner peace will be that of absolute state in which nothing but the self exists.