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॥ अष्टावक्र उवाच ॥
Ch. 15 Sh.1
यथातथोपदेशेन कृतार्थः सत्त्वबुद्धिमान् ।
आजीवमपि जिज्ञासुः परस्तत्र विमुह्यति ॥ १५-१॥
yathātathōpadēśēna kr̥tārthaḥ sattvabuddhimān |
ājīvamapi jijñāsuḥ parastatra vimuhyati || 15-1||
यथा तथा उपदेशेन कृतार्थः सत्त्वबुद्धिमान् आजीवम् अपि जिज्ञासुः परः तत्र विमुह्यति ॥ १५-१॥
यथा तथा (यथा-how it is तथा-just so)-in whatever manner, just casual उपदेशेन-by instruction कृतार्थः स्यात् -attains the goal सत्त्वबुद्धिमान् (सत्त्व-pure बुद्धिमान्-wise man)-a person of pure intellect आजीवम्-for his entire life अपि-even जिज्ञासुः-seeker of knowledge परः-but the other तत्र-there, in it विमुह्यति- is perplexed.
A man of pure inellect may realize the Self upon hearing a casual instruction, while a seeker of cluttered intellect keeps on inquiring bewildered for a lifetime.
यथा तथा उपदेशेन सत्त्वबुद्धिमान् कृतार्थः स्यात्- A person of pure intelligence realizes the self even by a casual instruction. In Tattiria Upanishad, the guru Varuna keeps on telling the student Bhrugu to meditate on the truth. This was sufficient for him to gain self-knowledge. In the beginning the student thought Anna is Brahman. The Guru instructed him to continue tapas.
अन्नं ब्रह्मेति व्यजानात् ।
अधीहि भगवो ब्रह्मेति । तँ होवाच ।
तपसा ब्रह्म विजिज्ञासस्व । तपो ब्रह्मेति ।
स तपोऽतप्यत । स तपस्तप्त्वा
Bhragu learnt that food is Brahman because it is from food that all these beings are born, by food they are sustained, and after death they merge with food. Having realized that he approached his father again and said, “Venerable Sir, teach me Brahman”. Varuna replied; “Seek to know Brahman by tapas for tapas is Brahman”. And having practiced tapas….
आनन्दो ब्रह्मेति व्यजानात् ।
आनन्दाध्येव खल्विमानि भूतानि जायन्ते ।
आनन्देन जातानि जीवन्ति ।
आनन्दं प्रयन्त्यभिसंविशन्तीति ।
The student realized that Bliss is Brahman, for from bliss (ananda) all these beings are born, by bliss these beings live, and at the time of dissolution they enter into it and merge with it.
सत्त्व बुद्धिमान् a man of pure intellect is one who is free from the qualities of tamas and rajas. A man of sattva quality is most receptive to teaching and practicing. He is free from agitations and dissiparous nature of the mind. For a such a person a casual message will be suffiencient inspiration.
परः जिज्ञासुः आजीवम् अपि तत्र विमुह्यति – Whereas a seeker of cluttered intellect fails to realize the self even after studying for a lifetime. Books are the same, teacher is the same, message is the same. But a man of rajas and tamas will not receive the message of the Guru. He toils for progress for the entire life without success. It is because of his attitude and gunas of the mind.
Ch. 15 Sh.2
मोक्षो विषयवैरस्यं बन्धो वैषयिको रसः ।
एतावदेव विज्ञानं यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥ १५-२॥
mōkṣō viṣayavairasyaṁ bandhō vaiṣayikō rasaḥ |
ētāvadēva vijñānaṁ yathēcchasi tathā kuru || 15-2||
मोक्षः विषयवैरस्यम् बन्धः वैषयिकः रसः एतावत् ऎव विज्ञानम् यथा इच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥ १५-२॥
मोक्षः-liberation विषयवैरस्यम्-(विषयस्य -objects, एव only relating to objects वैरस्यम्- distaste)-distate for sense objects बन्धः-bondage वैषयिकः-sensual रसः-taste एतावत्-such is ऎव-indeed विज्ञानम्-knowledge यथा- इच्छसि-you wish तथा-same way कुरु- do
Aversion to the sense objects is liberation. Attraction to the sense objects is the suffering or bondage. This is the truth. Now do as you please.
मोक्षः विषय एव वैरस्यम् बन्धः वैषयिकः रसः- Liberation is aversion to sense objects. Attraction to sense objects causes bondage. The ego seeking gratification of senses gets more and more attachment to the body. This causes a host of negative tendencies like raga, dwesha and moha.
The same idea has been expressed nicely in Amrutabindu Uanishad.
मन एव मनुष्याणां कारणं बन्धमोक्षयोः। बन्धाय विषयासक्तं मुक्तं निर्विषयं स्मृतम्॥ २॥
Mind alone is the cause of people’s bondage and liberation. When the mind is attached to objects it causes bondage and when free from objects it causes liberation.
In Gita also Krsihana wraps up his exposition to Arjuna by the words यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥१८:६३॥, do as you like.
Ch. 15 Sh.3
वाग्मिप्राज्ञामहोद्योगं जनं मूकजडालसम् ।
करोति तत्त्वबोधोऽयमतस्त्यक्तो बुभुक्षभिः ॥ १५-३॥
vāgmiprājñāmahōdyōgaṁ janaṁ mūkajaḍālasam |
karōti tattvabōdhō:’yamatastyaktō bubhukṣabhiḥ || 15-3||
वाग्मि प्राज्ञा महा उद्योगम् जनम् मूक जड अलसम् करोति तत्त्वबोधः अयम् अतः त्यक्तः बुभुक्षभिः ॥ १५-३॥
वाग्मि-eloquent प्राज्ञा-wise महा उद्योगम्-hard working जनम्- man, person मूक-mute जड-studpid, dull अलसम्-lazy करोति-makes तत्त्वबोधः (तत्त्व-truth बोधः- Knowledge)-knowledge of truth अयम्-this अतः-so त्यक्तः-shunned बुभुक्षभिः-those who want to enjoy worldy pleaure
This awareness of the Truth makes an eloquent, clever and energetic man dumb, stupid and lazy and therefore truth is avoided by those whose aim is pleasure.
अयम् तत्त्वबोधः वाग्मि प्राज्ञा महा उद्योगम् जनम् मूक जड अलसम् करोति – This knowledge of truth may make a person who has gift of the gab, wise and industrious into one who is dumb, stupid and lazy. The meaning of the verse should not be taken literally. Spiritual advice is often given in ambiguous way. Bible says the sound of silence. Zen Buddhists say ‘eat but not eat’ meaning eat only just sufficient to live but not like a glutton. The message given by Ashtavakra in this verse is a wise man who is fluent, and industrious, becomes reticent, and without activity. Do we need GPS after reaching our destination? Do we need the sump tank and overhead tank water when fresh water is flowing in the pipes 24X7? The gift of the gab, unending activity and all the sadhanas, are required for a man who is spiritually not advanced, but not for a consummate yogi.
All the yogis do not abide by this standard. Take the example of Acharya Shankara. Till the end of his life he was engaged in spreading the tenets of Advaita Vedanta. He travelled all over India on foot and established four monasteries. He engaged in debate with non-advaitins and converted them to follow Vedanta.
अयम् अतः तत्त्वबोधः बुभुक्षभिः त्यक्तः-So, this knowledge is not meant for those who seek enjoyment in the world
Ch. 15 Sh.4
न त्वं देहो न ते देहो भोक्ता कर्ता न वा भवान् ।
चिद्रूपोऽसि सदा साक्षी निरपेक्षः सुखं चर ॥ १५-४॥
na tvaṁ dēhō na tē dēhō bhōktā kartā na vā bhavān |
cidrūpō:’si sadā sākṣī nirapēkṣaḥ sukhaṁ cara || 15-4||
न त्वम् देहः न ते देहः भोक्ता कर्ता न वा भवान् चिद्रूपः असि सदा साक्षी निरपेक्षः सुखम् चर ॥ १५-४॥
न-not त्वम्-you देहः-body न- not ते-your देहः-body भोक्ता- enjoyer कर्ता-doer न-not वा-or भवान्-you चिद्रूपः-consciousness itself असि-you are सदा-ever साक्षी-witness निरपेक्षः-unexpecting, indifferent सुखम्-happy चर- go about, live
You are not the body, nor is the body yours. You neither do nor enjoy. You are awareness only, the timeless witness. You are free. Go in happiness.
न त्वम् देहः न ते देहः भोक्ता कर्ता न वा भवान् चिद्रूपः असि सदा साक्षी निरपेक्षः सुखम् चर ॥ १५-४॥
A worldly man runs after the sense organs for his enjoyment and pleasure. When his desires are gratified naturally, he thinks that he has enjoyed the object. This boosts his desire. This is called ego or अहंकार “I”-ness. When he posses the object he gets attached to it. This is called ममकार or “My”-ness. You are not the doer or enjoyer says Ashtavakra. Thus, he negates the gross body and subltle body. Then what are you? You are pure consciousness, the eternal witness of the all the experiences of the body, mind and consciousness. Understanding this live happily centred in the self.
Ch. 15 Sh.5
रागद्वेषौ मनोधर्मौ न मनस्ते कदाचन ।
निर्विकल्पोऽसि बोधात्मा निर्विकारः सुखं चर ॥ १५-५॥
rāgadvēṣau manōdharmau na manastē kadācana |
nirvikalpō:’si bōdhātmā nirvikāraḥ sukhaṁ cara || 15-5||
रागद्वेषौ मनोधर्मौ न मनः ते कदाचन निर्विकल्पः असि बोधात्मा निर्विकारः सुखम् चर
रागद्वेषौ (रागः-likes, attractions द्वेषः-dislikes, aversions)-likes and dislikes मनोधर्मौ-are the qualities of the mind न-not मनः-the mind ते-your कदाचन-ever निर्विकल्पः-without thought, free from change, admitting no doubt असि-you are बोधात्मा-consciousness, intelligence निर्विकारः-changeless सुखम्-happily चर-go about
Likes and dislikes are the qualities of the mind. Mind that you are never the mind. You are pure knowledge neither depending upon nor derived from senses. You are independent of thought. As that alone, please live with content and pace.
रागद्वेषौ मनोधर्मौ न मनः ते कदाचन-attraction and aversion are the qualities of the mind but not yours. A sadhaka should not love or hate. To do so is to identify oneself with the mind. When I say ’I love’, only narrow selfish love is meant. And not the universal love for all beings which springs forth from awareness of self.
निर्विकल्पः असि बोधात्मा निर्विकारः सुखम् चर –You are independent of thought. You are pure knowledge not based on thought. You are intelligence. You are free, go about happily.
Ch. 15 Sh.6
सर्वभूतेषु चात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि ।
विज्ञाय निरहङ्कारो निर्ममस्त्वं सुखी भव ॥ १५-६॥
sarvabhūtēṣu cātmānaṁ sarvabhūtāni cātmani |
vijñāya nirahaṅkārō nirmamastvaṁ sukhī bhava || 15-6||
सर्वभूतेषु च आत्मानम् सर्वभूतानि च आत्मनि विज्ञाय निरहङ्कारः निर्ममः त्वम् सुखी भव
सर्वभूतेषु- (सर्व-all भूतेषु-beings)-in all beings च-and आत्मानम्-self सर्वभूतानि-all beings च-and आत्मनि-in the self विज्ञाय-knowing निरहङ्कारः-egoless निर्ममः-free from ‘my-ness’ त्वम्-you सुखी-happy भव- become
Realize the self in all beings and all beings in the self and that there is nothing but the self alone. By experiencing this truth, be free from ‘I-ness’, and ‘my-ness’. May you be happy.
सर्वभूतेषु च आत्मानम् सर्वभूतानि च आत्मनि-One consciousness in me and in all beings. When one realizes the self, he actually feels that he is the essence of reality of all things that exist within himself. An ordinary man limits himself for this physical body and mind. He is seperte from all other beings and things. Identification with the mind causes limitaitons of time, space and object.
विज्ञाय निरहङ्कारः निर्ममः त्वम् सुखी भव –Dis-identify yourself with your body and mind and you will feel connected to everyting in the world.
Gita also says the same idea
सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि।ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्वत्र समदर्शनः।। Gita 6.29।।
A yogi should see the same soul in all manifestations, for all that exists is a manifestation of the Supreme. In this way the devotee should see all living entities without distinction. That is realization of the Supreme Soul.
Ch. 15 Sh.7
विश्वं स्फुरति यत्रेदं तरंगा इव सागरे ।
तत्त्वमेव न सन्देहश्चिन्मूर्ते विज्वरो भव ॥ १५-७॥
viśvaṁ sphurati yatrēdaṁ taraṁgā iva sāgarē |
tattvamēva na sandēhaścinmūrtē vijvarō bhava || 15-7||
विश्वम् स्फुरति यत्र इदम् तरंगाः इव सागरे तत् त्वम् एव न सन्देहः चिन्मुर्ते विज्वरः भव
विश्वम्-world स्फुरति-springs forth, appears, manisfests यत्र- where इदम्-this तरंगाः-waves इव-like सागरे-in the ocean तत्-that त्वम्-you एव-truely न-not सन्देहः-doubt, compromise चिन्मुर्ते-Oh you pure intelligence विज्वरः-free from feverishness भव-be, become
O you are pure intelligence. In you the universe appears like waves in the ocean. Be free from the fever of the mind.
विश्वम् स्फुरति यत्र इदम् तरंगाः इव सागरे- You are that pure intelligence or self from which the apparent illusions of the world arise, play for a while and ultimately disappear. You are the changeless substratum, the support or आधार. The world is the changing phenomenon supported by you आधेय. स्फुरति means springs forth. Just as the waves arise, stay for some time and disappear in ocean, the world of objects arises and disappear in you. The dream world is created by me, sustained by me and disappear in me.
तत् त्वम् एव न सन्देहः चिन्मुर्ते विज्वरः भव- O you are that pure intelligence without any doubt. With this awareness, be free from feverish excitement and desires of the mind. The outer sense objects have no power and strength to seduce us. It is the desire of the mind that prompts us to obtain and enjoy the objects. When the desire has ended, the mind is ultimately inactivated. This ensues a cessation of the feverish excitements of the mind
Ch. 15 Sh.8
श्रद्धस्व तात श्रद्धस्व नात्र मोऽहं कुरुष्व भोः ।
ज्ञानस्वरूपो भगवानात्मा त्वं प्रकृतेः परः ॥ १५-८॥
śraddhasva tāta śraddhasva nātra mō:’haṁ kuruṣva bhōḥ |
jñānasvarūpō bhagavānātmā tvaṁ prakr̥tēḥ paraḥ || 15-8||
श्रद्धस्व तात श्रद्धस्व न अत्र मोहम् कुरुष्व भोः ज्ञानस्वरूपः भगवान् आत्मा त्वम् प्रकृतेः परः ॥ १५-८॥
श्रद्धस्व- have faith तात- my dear श्रद्धस्व-have faith न-not अत्र-in this, here मोहम्-confusion कुरुष्व-make भोः- hello ज्ञानस्वरूपः-knowledge itself भगवान्- Lord आत्मा-the self त्वम्-you प्रकृतेः- from nature परः-beyond.
Have faith my son, have faith. Make no mistake. You are knowledge itself. You are awareness, the self, the only one. You are Lord of nature.
श्रद्धस्व तात श्रद्धस्व न अत्र मोहम् कुरुष्व –Have faith my son have faith. Do not make any mistake in this. Faith means loyalty, belief and trust in one’s scriptures and Guru. Gita also says
श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः ।ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिमचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥ 4:39 ॥
A man who has complete faith, who is devoted to it, and who has subdued the senses, obtains spiritual knowledge and and goes into suprme peace.
भोः ज्ञानस्वरूपः भोः भगवान् भोः आत्मा त्वम् प्रकृतेः परः –You are the knowledge itself. You are the awareness. You are beyond prakruti. You are the lord of prakruti. You are unaffected by nature. You are the controller of nature.
Ch. 15 Sh.9
गुणैः संवेष्टितो देहस्तिष्ठत्यायाति याति च ।
आत्मा न गंता नागंता किमेनमनुशोचसि ॥ १५-९॥
guṇaiḥ saṁvēṣṭitō dēhastiṣṭhatyāyāti yāti ca |
ātmā na gaṁtā nāgaṁtā kimēnamanuśōcasi || 15-9||
गुणैः संवेष्टितः देहः तिष्टति आयाति याति च आत्मा न गंता नागंता किम् ऎनम् अनुशोचसि ॥ १५-९॥
गुणैः-by qualities or attributes संवेष्टितः-wrapped up देहः-the body तिष्टति-stays आयाति-comes याति-goes च-and आत्मा-the self न- not गंता- goes नागंता (न-not आगंता-coming)-not coming किम्-what, why ऎनम्-it अनुशोचसि- lament, mourn
The body is made up of worldly stuff. It comes, stays and goes away. The self neither comes nor goes. Why do you then mourn the body?
गुणैः संवेष्टितः देहः तिष्टति आयाति याति च- The body which is wrapped up in the gunas exists, functions according to predominant quality of sattva, rajas and tamas. The word देहः or body includes the gross body as well as the subtle body consisting of mind, intellect and ego. Through ego the body enjoys the outer and inner world. It comes, stays and departs.
आत्मा न गंता नागंता किम् ऎनम् अनुशोचसि – The self is not affected thus. It neither goes nor comes. It is the supreme truth. It is one and for ever. Then why do you mourn the changes of the body such as death?
Ch. 15 Sh.10
देहस्तिष्ठतु कल्पान्तं गच्छत्वद्यैव वा पुनः ।
क्व वृद्धिः क्व च वा हानिस्तव चिन्मात्ररूपिणः ॥ १५-१०॥
dēhastiṣṭhatu kalpāntaṁ gacchatvadyaiva vā punaḥ |
kva vr̥ddhiḥ kva ca vā hānistava cinmātrarūpiṇaḥ || 15-10||
देहः तिष्ठतु कल्पान्तम् गच्छतु अद्य एव वा पुनः क्व वृद्धिः क्व च वा हानिः तव चिन्मात्ररूपिणः ॥ १५-१०॥
देहः-body तिष्ठतु-let remain कल्पान्तम्-to the end of the cycle गच्छतु- let go अद्य-to day एव-only वा-or पुनः-repeatedly क्व-where वृद्धिः-gain क्व-where च-and वा-or हानिः-loss तव-for you चिन्मात्ररूपिणः (चिन्-intelligence मात्र-mere रूपिणः-form)-who are in the form of pure consciousness unmixed with anything besides.
Let the body last until the end of time or perish today— is there any gain or loss for you? You who are pure Awareness.
देहः तिष्ठतु कल्पान्तम् गच्छतु अद्य एव वा पुनः –let the body last to the end of this ‘kalpa’ or or let it drop just today itself.
क्व वृद्धिः क्व च वा हानिः- is there any gain or loss to you?
तव चिन्मात्ररूपिणः- You are pure awareness (intelligence). The body exists and plays out in the self, springing from the illusions of the observing mind. You are the observer and illuminator of all actions of the body. How does it make any difference to you? You are unaffected, unconcerned by the changes in the body just as the sun is unaffected by whatever happens under his light.
Gita 2:17 says:
अविनाशि तु तत् विद्धि येन सर्वम् इदम् ततम् –know that alone to be imperishable by which all this is pervaded. The word Tat refers to Brahman. सर्वम् इदम् refers to all this mortal body and universe. The spirit by whom the entire universe is pervaded cannot be destroyed. The lord defined in the previous verse, the mystery of real and unreal. Real is that which is available to us at all periods of time. It is called ‘sat’ or Real. It is the life- giving consciousness.
Ch. 15 Sh.11
त्वय्यनंतमहाम्भोधौ विश्ववीचिः स्वभावतः ।
उदेतु वास्तमायातु न ते वृद्धिर्न वा क्षतिः ॥ १५-११॥
tvayyanaṁtamahāmbhōdhau viśvavīciḥ svabhāvataḥ |
udētu vāstamāyātu na tē vr̥ddhirna vā kṣatiḥ || 15-11||
त्वयि अनंतमहाम्भोधौ विश्ववीचिः स्वभावतः उदेतु वा अस्तम् आयातु न ते वृद्धिः न वा क्षतिः ॥ १५-११॥
त्वयि-in you अनंतमहाम्भोधौ-infinite ocen विश्ववीचिः-(विश्व-world वीचिः-wave)-the waves of the universe स्वभावतः- on its own, spontaneously उदेतु-let them rise वा-or अस्तम्-fall, disappear आयातु-let come न-not ते-your वृद्धिः- growth न- not वा-or क्षतिः- loss, injury
In you, who are the ocean of infinite consciousness, let the waves of universe rise and fall as they will. You have nothing to gain or lose. You are the ocean.
त्वयि अनंतमहाम्भोधौ विश्ववीचिः स्वभावतः उदेतु वा अस्तम् आयातु न ते वृद्धिः न वा क्षतिः ॥ १५-११॥
In the preceding verse Ashtavakra emphasised complete dis-identification with body. He said: देहः तिष्ठतु कल्पान्तम् गच्छतु अद्य एव वा पुनः क्व वृद्धिः क्व च वा हानिः तव चिन्मात्ररूपिणः
In the present verse he preaches complete disidentification with the world outside. You are the ocean of infinite truth. Let the world spring forth or set free in your mind. “Creation and dissolution of the universe are the illusion of the mind. They are valid only at the plane of ego. They have no existence at all in the state of pure consciousness. Let the dream come, stay or disappear. How does it concern a man in waking state?” -Swami Chinmayananda.
In Chaper 2:24 Janaka has also expressed the same idea. Here is the shloka.
मयि अनंत महा अम्भोधौ चित्तवाते प्रशाम्यति अभाग्यात् जीववणिज: जगत्पोतः विनश्वरः
In me, the limitless ocean, the storms of the mind come to rest. Unfortunately, for jiva the trader, the ship of the universe gets destroyed.
Ch. 15 Sh.12
तात चिन्मात्ररूपोऽसि न ते भिन्नमिदं जगत् ।
अतः कस्य कथं कुत्र हेयोपादेयकल्पना ॥ १५-१२॥
tāta cinmātrarūpō:’si na tē bhinnamidaṁ jagat |
ataḥ kasya kathaṁ kutra hēyōpādēyakalpanā || 15-12||
तात चिन्मात्ररूपः असि न ते भिन्नम् इदम् जगत् अतः कस्य कथम् कुत्र हेय उपादेय कल्पना ॥ १५-१२॥
तात-child चिन्मात्ररूपः-(चित्-consciousness मात्र-pure unalloyed)-pure intelligence असि-you are न-not ते-from you भिन्नम्-different इदम्-this जगत्-universe अतः-thus, therefore कस्य- whose कथम्-how कुत्र-where हेय-thought of rejection and उपादेय-accepence कल्पना- idea
O son! You are pure intelligence itself. This world is nothing different from you. Threrefore who is it that thinks, he can accept or reject it? To whom such a thought could occur?
तात चिन्मात्ररूपः असि न ते भिन्नम् इदम् जगत्- You are nothing but pure consciousness. The world is not different from you. On enquiry about the reality of universe we find that the world is also my own self. There is nothing other than self. There is nothing pleasant or unpleasant to the self. So, what can be accepted or rejected.
अतः कस्य कथम् कुत्र हेय उपादेय कल्पना- “The idea of accepting or rejecting something is the function of the mind. I am the pure intelligence. There is no mind in me. Therefore, there is no question of accepting or rejecting anything as unreal. Thre are no two ideas of acceptance and rejection. I am the only reality. There is no nreality”. -Swami Chinmayananda
Ch. 15 Sh.13
एकस्मिन्नव्यये शान्ते चिदाकाशेऽमले त्वयि ।
कुतो जन्म कुतो कर्म कुतोऽहङ्कार एव च ॥ १५-१३॥
ēkasminnavyayē śāntē cidākāśē:’malē tvayi |
kutō janma kutō karma kutō:’haṅkāra ēva ca || 15-13||
एकस्मिन् अव्यये शान्ते चिदाकाशे अमले त्वयि कुतः जन्मः कुतः कर्मः कुतः अहङ्कार एव च ॥ १५-१३॥
एकस्मिन्-in this one अव्यये-imperishable, not decaying शान्ते-serene चिदाकाशे-( चित्-consciousness आकाशे-space)-the space which is consciousness अमले-pure त्वयि-in you कुतः-from where जन्मः-birth कुतः-from where कर्मः-action कुतः-from where अहङ्कार-ego एव-even च- and
In you who are one, immaculate, serene awareness, from where can birth, action or ego sense arise?
एकस्मिन् अव्यये शान्ते चिदाकाशे अमले त्वयि- The self is described as अस्मिन् ऎकः in this singular, one. It refers to non-dual infinite reality. Change and modification are in the domain of the body and mind. In consciousness there is no change. So, it is imperishable. It is serene or शान्ते because it is beyond the realm of mind. अमले means pure, immaculate, without flaw or blemish. चिदाकाशे the space which is consciousness.
In Vedanta three types of space (आकाश) are discussed. Space is the subtlest material which can pervade everything in the universe. It is called महाकाश. There is a space in the mind for thought perception It is called चित्ताकाश (चित्त आकाश). सङ्कल्प विकल्प are the characteristics of Mind. The third type of space is चिदाकाश or consciousness, the intelligence space in which the self perceives itself. This space is not different from the perceiver and the perceived. There is no subject or object. It is all one. The space here is identical with the self. Really speaking there is no space, but the word space is used to exend the anology to demonstrate self-perception. – Swami Nitya swarupananda.
कुतः जन्मः कुतः कर्मः कुतः अहङ्कार एव च – कुतः जन्मः where is birth and death. He is anadi and self-existent. कुतः कर्मः Where is action. Action also implies desire to achive something which is not with him. With consciousness no action is possible. Action take place when there is a body. कुतः अहङ्कार एव च – or ego implies attachment to body, mind or the outside world. This is not possible with Atman.
Ch. 15 Sh.14
यत्त्वं पश्यसि तत्रैकस्त्वमेव प्रतिभाससे ।
किं पृथक् भासते स्वर्णात् कटकाङ्गदनूपुरम् ॥ १५-१४॥
yattvaṁ paśyasi tatraikastvamēva pratibhāsasē |
kiṁ pr̥thak bhāsatē svarṇāt kaṭakāṁgadanūpuram || 15-14||
यत् त्वम् पश्यसि तत्र एकः त्वम् ऎव प्रतिभाससे किम् पृथक् भासते स्वर्णात् कटकाङ्गदनूपुरम् ॥ १५-१४॥
यत्-what त्वम्-you पश्यसि-see तत्र-there एकः-alone त्वम्-you alone ऎव-verily प्रतिभाससे-shine, manifest or refelct किम्-what पृथक्-different भासते-shines appears स्वर्णात्-from gold कटकाङ्गदनूपुरम् (कटक-bracelet अङ्गद-armlet नूपुरम्-anklet)-bangles, armlets and anklets.
Whatever you perceive is You and You alone. How can bracelets, armlets and anklets be other than the gold of which they are made of?
यत् त्वम् पश्यसि तत्र एकः त्वम् ऎव प्रतिभाससे किम् पृथक् भासते स्वर्णात् कटकाङ्गदनूपुरम्
‘Advaita Vedanta holds that the Self is the only reality and the universe is no other than the Self itself, —only names and forms have been superimposed on it. Just as the reality of gold ornaments is gold itself and nothing but gold, so is the universe nothing different from the Self. The Self alone exists’ –Swami Nityasvarupananda
Ch. 15 Sh.15
अयं सोऽहमयं नाहं विभागमिति संत्यज ।
सर्वमात्मेति निश्चित्य निःसङ्कल्पः सुखी भव ॥ १५-१५॥
ayaṁ sō:’hamayaṁ nāhaṁ vibhāgamiti saṁtyaja |
sarvamātmēti niścitya niḥsaṅkalpaḥ sukhī bhava || 15-15||
अयम् सः अहम् अयम् न अहम् विभागम् इति संत्यज सर्वम् आत्मा इति निश्चित्य निःसङ्कल्पः सुखी भव ॥ १५-१५॥
अयम्-this सः-He, the self अहम्-I अयम्- this world of objects न-not अहम्-I anatma or non-self विभागम्- division, distinction इति-thus संत्यज-give up completely सर्वम्-all आत्मा- self इति-thus निश्चित्य-having determined निःसङ्कल्पः- free from desire सुखी-happy भव-become
Leave behind such distinctions as “I am He, the Self,” and “I am not this.” Consider everything as Self. Be desireless. Be happy.
अयम् सः अहम् अयम् न अहम् विभागम् इति संत्यज सर्वम् आत्मा इति निश्चित्य निःसङ्कल्पः सुखी भव
विभागम् संत्यज completely drop all thoughts of seperateness from the world. A yogi will not say, “I am transcendental person but I am not the anatma world”. As explained in the preceding verse, the universe is also self (यत् त्वम् पश्यसि तत्र एकः त्वम् ऎव प्रतिभाससे).
सर्वम् आत्मा इति निश्चित्य Having realized that everything is Atma. Everything means both transcendental and relative reality are the self. Be free from desire and be happy abding in the self.
Ch. 15 Sh.16
तवैवाज्ञानतो विश्वं त्वमेकः परमार्थतः ।
त्वत्तोऽन्यो नास्ति संसारी नासंसारी च कश्चन ॥ १५-१६॥
tavaivājñānatō viśvaṁ tvamēkaḥ paramārthataḥ |
tvattō:’nyō nāsti saṁsārī nāsaṁsārī ca kaścana || 15-16||
तव एव अज्ञानतः विश्वम् त्वम् ऎकः परमार्थतः त्वत्तः अन्यः न अस्ति संसारी न असंसारी च कश्चन ॥ १५-१६॥
तव-your एव-alone अज्ञानतः-through ignorance विश्वम्-the universe अस्ति- exists त्वम्-you ऎकः-one परमार्थतः-in reality त्वत्तः-other than you अन्यः-different न-not अस्ति-exists संसारी-transmigrating ego or jiva न-not अस्ति -exists असंसारी-non-transmigrating च-also कश्चन-any one, anything अस्ति -exists
Your ignorance alone creates the universe. In fact, you the one reality alone exists. There is no person or god other than You.
तव एव अज्ञानतः विश्वम् अस्ति- The plurality of world appears to exist because of your ignorance.
त्वम् ऎकः परमार्थतः त्वत्तः अन्यः न अस्ति संसारी न असंसारी च कश्चन –It is only through your ignorance that the universe appears to exist. In reality you alone are. There is no jiva or Ishwara other than you. As long as the mind functions (चित्त वृत्ती), there is ego or individual jiva, the perceiver who perceives the universe (जगत्). If you see the universe, there must be a God or Ishwara who created the universe. Then there must be consciousness or Brahman.
संसारी न असंसारी च- संसारी or संसारिन् refers to one who is attached to mundane existence. He has dehabhavana, desire and its host of modifications. This causes ignorance about the nature of world. All this concept goes away when knowledge is gained.
Ch. 15 Sh.17
भ्रान्तिमात्रमिदं विश्वं न किंचिदिति निश्चयी ।
निर्वासनः स्फूर्तिमात्रो न किंचिदिव शाम्यति ॥ १५-१७॥
bhrāntimātramidaṁ viśvaṁ na kiṁciditi niścayī |
nirvāsanaḥ sphūrtimātrō na kiṁcidiva śāmyati || 15-17||
भ्रान्तिमात्रम् इदम् विश्वम् न किंचित् इति निश्चयी निर्वासनः स्फूर्तिमात्रः न किंचित् इव शाम्यति ॥ १५-१७॥
भ्रान्तिमात्रम्-mere illusion, confusion इदम्-this विश्वम्-world न-not किंचित्-anything इति-thus निश्चयी-one who is sure निर्वासनः-desireless, without inclinations स्फूर्तिमात्रः-nothing but sparkling, shining न-not किंचित्-anything इव-as if शाम्यति -comes to peace, finds serenity
One who knows for certain that the universe is illusion, a nothing, becomes desireless, pure awareness, and finds peace in the existence of nothing.
भ्रान्तिमात्रम् इदम् विश्वम् न किंचित् इति निश्चयी निर्वासनः स्फूर्तिमात्रः न किंचित् इव शाम्यति
Janaka expresses in this verse his direct experience with the one reality. This is not a bookish knowledge but transcendental knowledge. The mind or the senses do not perceive but expirences the truth. There is no experiencer, or an object of experience. They merge into one. You become the truth. In that condition you experience that there is nothing other than you—no world of objects, desires, mind and emoltions. So, such a person becomes स्फूर्तिमात्रः evershining intelligence. There is no outer world of objects or inner world of passion to agitate the mind. Naturally, the mind becomes serene न किंचित् इव शाम्यति.
Ch. 15 Sh.18
एक एव भवाम्भोधावासीदस्ति भविष्यति ।
न ते बन्धोऽस्ति मोक्षो वा कृत्यकृत्यः सुखं चर ॥ १५-१८॥
ēka ēva bhavāmbhōdhāvāsīdasti bhaviṣyati |
na tē bandhō:’sti mōkṣō vā kr̥tyakr̥tyaḥ sukhaṁ cara || 15-18||
एक एव भवाम्भोधौ आसीत् अस्ति भविष्यति न ते बन्धः अस्ति मोक्षः वा कृत्यकृत्यः सुखम् चर ॥ १५-१८॥
एक-one एव-alone भवाम्भोधौ-in the ocean of existence (भव-existence, to be भवांबोध-ocean) आसीत्-was अस्ति- is भविष्यति-will be न-not ते-your बन्धः-bondage अस्ति-is मोक्षः-liberation वा-or कृत्यकृत्यः-contended, fulfilled, accomplished सुखम्- happily चर-move about
In the ocean of existence, the one self only was, is and will be. You are neither bound nor free. Live contented and happy.
एक एव भवाम्भोधौ आसीत् अस्ति भविष्यति- In the ocean of existence, the one self only was, is and will be. The world of pluracity is called here as the ocean of existence. So many things exist in the world. Tens of thousands of species of living beings, innumerable insentient objects like building, interiours, mountains, trees, rivers, lakes, celestial bodies, etc. What is common between the living and non-living beings? Both of them exist. Existence is the common factor. There is one existence (सत्ता) in which things exist. This book exists on the table. Even if the book is destroyed the ‘existence’ continues to exist. It is the expression of infinite reality behind names and forms. Threfore, existence was, is, and will continue to exist for all times.
न ते बन्धः अस्ति मोक्षः वा कृत्यकृत्यः सुखम् चर- You are neither bound nor free. Live contented and happy. Bondage and freedom belong to the world of objects. The self has no bondage or freedom. He is the non-dual one, without a second. He exists for all times. That is the meaning of आसीत् अस्ति भविष्यति without the limitation of space and time.
कृत्यकृत्यः सुखम् चर- Live contented and happy. One who is contented has all his desires fulfilled. So, he is free from all desires. Thre is nothing more to be acquired or achived by him. Such a person lives happily.
Ch. 15 Sh.19
मा सङ्कल्पविकल्पाभ्यां चित्तं क्षोभय चिन्मय ।
उपशाम्य सुखं तिष्ठ स्वात्मन्यानन्दविग्रहे ॥ १५-१९॥
मा सङ्कल्पविकल्पाभ्याम् चित्तम् क्षोभय चिन्मय उपशाम्य सुखम् तिष्ठ स्वात्मनि आनन्दविग्रहे
सङ्कल्पविकल्पाभ्याम् (सङ्कल्प-volition, intention, desire विकल्पाभ्याम्-from alternative, choice, doubt) -from affirmation and negation, making up and braking the mind चित्तम्- the mind मा- do not क्षोभय- disturb चिन्मय-O! pure intelligence (चिन्-consciousness मय-full of, unmixed)- उपशाम्य-silencing the mind सुखम्-happy तिष्ठ-stand, stay, remain स्वात्मनि-in your own self आनन्दविग्रहे-embodiment of bliss (आनन्द- happiness विग्रहे-embodiment, epitome)
O pure consciousness! Do not disturb your mind by affirming and negating things. Silencing them abide happily in your own self, which is an embodiment of absolue bliss.
मा सङ्कल्पविकल्पाभ्याम् चित्तम् क्षोभय चिन्मय-You are the form of consciousness, do not get anxious with different resolves and alternatives.
Tattva Bodha defines the mind as संकल्प विकल्पात्मकम् or of deciding and doubting nature. This is the function of the mind. It has to be curious about objects and seek knowledge of them constantly. With the help of intellect and memory it gets a complete experience of the object. The mind resolves to do some thing as “I shall do it”. It also negates the resolve as “well, I shall not do it”. The mind, intellect, memory and their volitions are in the domain of delusion. Swami Chinmayananda writes, “in the awakend self, there is nothing to assert or negate”. You are pure awareness. Silence the remnant mind live happily in your divine spiritual state.
उपशाम्य सुखम् तिष्ठ स्वात्मनि आनन्दविग्रहे- Be at peace and remain in your blissful form pleasantly. Yogavasishta says, it is your own free will to liberate. The idea that ‘I am’; ‘this is mine’, takes you to bondage. The idea that ‘I am not’ leads you to freedom.
Ch. 15 Sh.20
त्यजैव ध्यानं सर्वत्र मा किंचिद् हृदि धारय ।
आत्मा त्वं मुक्त एवासि किं विमृश्य करिष्यसि ॥ १५-२०॥
tyajaiva dhyānaṁ sarvatra mā kiṁcid hr̥di dhāraya |
ātmā tvaṁ mukta ēvāsi kiṁ vimr̥śya kariṣyasi || 15-20||
त्यज एव ध्यानम् सर्वत्र मा किंचित् हृदि धारय आत्मा त्वम् ततः
मुक्तः एव असि किम् विमृश्य करिष्यसि ॥ १५-२०॥
त्यज-give up एव-even ध्यानम्-meditation सर्वत्र-everywhere, in everyway मा-do not किंचित्-anything at all हृदि- in the mind धारय-hold आत्मा-self त्वम्-you ततः -therefore मुक्तः-free एव-truly असि- you are किम्-what विमृश्य-thinking करिष्यसि- will you achieve
Give up even contemplation. Hold nothing in your heart and mind. You are the self, free forever. What will you gain by any thought?
त्यज एव ध्यानम् सर्वत्र मा किंचित् हृदि धारय- Give up meditation and do no hold anything in your heart or mind. This advice is for a jnyani, who after having practiced shravana, manana and nidhidyasana has become free from ego and dehabhimana, (body consciousness). He sees the self everywhere and everything in the self. He does not make any difference between the world of objects and the self. Whreas we say “I am in this world”, the jnyani says, “The world is in me”. What is the use of a road map when you have reached the destination?
Ashtavakra advices to such relaized souls, give up meditation. Do not hold even devine thoughts in the mind.
आत्मा त्वम् ततः मुक्तः एव असि किम् विमृश्य करिष्यसि- You are the self, and therefore eternally free. What is the use of any thoughts and meditation now? You have no thoughts of attaining any mundane objects or the eternal freedom.
Swami Chinmayananda says, it is like a man who is already asleep trying to catch some sleep. For a liberated man what is the use of objects and thoughts of meditation?