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॥ अष्टावक्र उवाच ॥
Ch. 17 Sh.1
तेन ज्ञानफलं प्राप्तं योगाभ्यासफलं तथा ।
तृप्तः स्वच्छेन्द्रियो नित्यं एकाकी रमते तु यः ॥ १७-१॥
tēna jñānaphalaṁ prāptaṁ yōgābhyāsaphalaṁ tathā |
tr̥ptaḥ svacchēndriyō nityaṁ ēkākī ramatē tu yaḥ || 17-1||
तेन ज्ञानफलम् प्राप्तम् योगाभ्यासफलम् तथा तृप्तः स्वच्छेन्द्रियः नित्यम् एकाकी रमते तु यः ॥ १७-१॥
तेन-by him ज्ञानफलम्-(ज्ञान- knowledge फलम्-fruit)-fruit of knowledge प्राप्तम्-attained योगाभ्यासफलम्-(योगाभ्यास-meditative exercise फलम्-fruit)- the fruit of practice of yoga तथा- as well as तृप्तः-contended स्वच्छेन्द्रियः-(स्वच्छ-clean, without any taint इन्द्रियः-faculties)-purified in his senses नित्यम्-ever एकाकी-alone, solitary रमते-enjoys तु -indeed यः- who
One who has gained the fruit of knowledge as well as the practice of yoga is content and purified in his senses, ever enjoys the state of being alone as the self.
तेन ज्ञानफलम् प्राप्तम् योगाभ्यासफलम् तथा तृप्तः स्वच्छेन्द्रियः भवति-
One who has obtained the results of the knowledge and the fruit of practice of yoga is contented and becomes free from all attachments and desires. Such a yogi is free from body consciousness and sense of my-ness and ownership. He is a candidate for सर्वविस्मरण, one who has dropped all his upadhis and learning as explained in verse 16:11. तृप्तः means one who is contented. He wants nothing because he is everyting. स्वच्छेन्द्रियः purified in his faculties and senses. The word free from impurity refers to attachment (राग) to objects. As long as the senses are attached to their objects, they remain impure.
नित्यम् एकाकी रमते तु यः – ever enjoys the state of solitude. He is in a state of being alone because he is the whole universe and there is nothing else than him. Swami Chinmayanda writes, “He is awakened to the state of transcendental pure awareness. Ego merges into infinite self. In the state of aloneness, the goal is reached, destination arrived, and the supreme state of total satisfaction is gained. This is a state of kaivalya (कैवल्य), the state of nirvikalpa samadhi (निर्विकल्प समाधि)”
Ch. 17 Sh.2
न कदाचिज्जगत्यस्मिन् तत्त्वज्ञो हन्त खिद्यति ।
यत एकेन तेनेदं पूर्णं ब्रह्माण्डमण्डलम् ॥ १७-२॥
na kadācijjagatyasmin tattvajñō hanta khidyati |
yata ēkēna tēnēdaṁ pūrṇaṁ brahmāṇḍamaṇḍalam || 17-2||
न कदाचित् जगति अस्मिन् तत्त्वज्ञः हन्त खिद्यति यतः एकेन तेन इदम् पूर्णम् ब्रह्माण्डमण्डलम् ॥ १७-२॥
न-not कदाचित्-ever जगति-in the world अस्मिन्-this तत्त्वज्ञः-knower of the truth हन्त-Oh खिद्यति-suffers, afflicted यतः-for एकेन- alone तेन-by himself इदम्-this पूर्णम्- filled ब्रह्माण्डमण्डलम्- (ब्रह्माण्ड- cosmos, seeded expanse मण्डलम्-sphere, chamber)-whole universe
Oh, the knower of Truth is never miserable in this world, for the whole universe is filled by himself alone.
न कदाचित् जगति अस्मिन् तत्त्वज्ञः हन्त खिद्यति –Oh the knower of the truth, one who has awakend to the transcendental state of pure awareness is never miserable in this world. The sense of misery is possible only when you see the world as different from you. That is duality. When one perceives nothing but himself in the whole universe, he cannot be touched by sorrow.
यतः एकेन तेन इदम् पूर्णम् ब्रह्माण्डमण्डलम्- For a sage who has discovered himself to be the self, the whole universe is nothing but the waves of disturbance arising in the ocean of consciousness. It is filled up by him alone. Threre is no second called misery.
Ch. 17 Sh.3
न जातु विषयाः केऽपि स्वारामं हर्षयन्त्यमी ।
सल्लकीपल्लवप्रीतमिवेभं निम्बपल्लवाः ॥ १७-३॥
na jātu viṣayāḥ kē:’pi svārāmaṁ harṣayantyamī |
sallakīpallavaprītamivēbhaṁ nimbapallavāḥ || 17-3||
न जातु विषयाः के अपि स्वारामम् हर्षयंति अमी सल्लकीपल्लवप्रीतम् इव इभम् निम्बपल्लवाः ॥ १७-३॥
न-not जातु-at any time विषयाः-sense objects के-whose अपि-even स्वारामम्-one delighted in the self हर्षयंति-please, make happy अमी-those सल्लकीपल्लवप्रीतम्-(सल्लकी-Boswell gum treee पल्लव-leaf प्रीतम्-enjoying)-who delights in Sallaki leaves इव-like इभम्-elephant निम्बपल्लवाः-the leaves of neem tree
As the foliage of a neem tree does not please an elephant who relishes the leaves of a sallaki gum tree, so do the sense objects do not please one who who delights in the self.
न जातु विषयाः के अपि स्वारामम् हर्षयंति- at any given time the sense objects do not enchant a person who is delighted in the infinite bliss of the self.
अमी सल्लकीपल्लवप्रीतम् इव इभम् निम्बपल्लवाः- just as those bitter foliage of neem tree are not relished by an elephant, however green and tender they may be. For him more delicious are the leaves of sallaki gum tree.
Ashtavakra’s message in this verse is that a sage who is centred in the absolute self does not relish the bitter-ridden sense objects.
Swami Chinmayananda says, “In Yogavasishta we read a brilliant description of the infinite bliss experienced by the sage in his self. The joy that fails his mind, which is thought-less and undisturbed, such a perfect joy is not found in the pleasing moon, nor in the palace of the creator, nor for the king of gods, Indra himself”
Ch. 17 Sh.4
यस्तु भोगेषु भुक्तेषु न भवत्यधिवासिताः ।
अभुक्तेषु निराकांक्षी तदृशो भवदुर्लभः ॥ १७-४॥
yastu bhōgēṣu bhuktēṣu na bhavatyadhivāsitaḥ |
abhuktēṣu nirākāṁkṣī tadr̥śō bhavadurlabhaḥ || 17-4||
यः तु भोगेषु भुक्तेषु न भवति अधिवासिताः अभुक्तेषु निराकांक्षी तादृशः भवदुर्लभः ॥ १७-४॥
यः-who तु-indeed भोगेषु-in the objects of enjoyment भुक्तेषु-experienced न-not भवति-becomes अधिवासिताः -affected by impressions, one on whom impressions are left अभुक्तेषु-in the things not experienced निराकांक्षी- not expecting तादृशः-such a one भवदुर्लभः-(भव-occuring in the world दुर्लभः- hard to obtain)-rare in the world
Rare in the world is he on whom impressions are not left of things which he had experienced or one who does not hanker after things not yet enjoyed.
यः तु भोगेषु भुक्तेषु न भवति अधिवासिताः- one in whom वासना or impressions are not left on object of enjoyment or on his experience of such enjoyment. Once we have enjoyed a thing, an impression (वासना) is left in the mind and that makes us to covet such an experience again and again. Only Self-knowledge can get rid of such attraction.
अभुक्तेषु निराकांक्षी तादृशः भवदुर्लभः- And one who is indifferent to the things not enjoyed, such a person is rare in the world.
Ch. 17 Sh. 5
बुभुक्षुरिह संसारे मुमुक्षुरपि दृश्यते ।
भोगमोक्षनिराकांक्षी विरलो हि महाशयः ॥ १७-५॥
bubhukṣuriha saṁsārē mumukṣurapi dr̥śyatē |
bhōgamōkṣanirākāṁkṣī viralō hi mahāśayaḥ || 17-5||
बुभुक्षुः इह संसारे मुमुक्षुः अपि दृश्यते भोगमोक्षनिराकांक्षी विरलः हि महाशयः ॥ १७-५॥
बुभुक्षुः-desirous of worldly enjoyments इह-here संसारे-in the world मुमुक्षुः-desirous of liberation, freedom, emancipation अपि-also दृश्यते-is seen भोगमोक्षनिराकांक्षी-(भोग-sensual plesures मोक्ष-liberation, freedom निराकांक्षी-not expecting) विरलः-rare हि-indeed महाशयः-noble minded sage
Those who desire pleasure and those who desire liberation are both common in the world. Rare is the great soul who desires neither enjoyment nor liberation.
बुभुक्षुः इह संसारे मुमुक्षुः अपि दृश्यते -In this world we find बुभुक्षु as well as मुमुक्षु. बुभुक्षु is the one who wants to eat or enjoy the material world, sense objects. मुमुक्षु is the one who wants libertion from the world of birth and death. He wants to be one with God.
भोगमोक्षनिराकांक्षी विरलः हि महाशयः- But it is very rare to find one who is nither interested in liberation not in material enjoyment. He is a great soul who is abiding in the infinite bliss. Ashtavakra calls him महाशयः great soul a noble man.
Ch. 17 Sh.6
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु जीविते मरणे तथा ।
कस्याप्युदारचित्तस्य हेयोपादेयता न हि ॥ १७-६॥
dharmārthakāmamōkṣēṣu jīvitē maraṇē tathā |
kasyāpyudāracittasya hēyōpādēyatā na hi || 17-6||
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु जीविते मरणे तथा कस्य अपि उदारचित्तस्य हेयोपादेयता न हि अस्ति ॥ १७-६॥
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु-(धर्म-virtue अर्थ-riches काम-pleasure मोक्षेषु-in liberation, freedom)-in right action, wealth, desire and freedom or spiritual emancipation जीविते-in life मरणे-or in death तथा -so also कस्याप्युदारचित्तस्य-(कस्य- of whom अपि-even उदार- broad चित्तस्य-minded)-of a broad- minded person हेयोपादेयता-(हेय-to be rejected उपादेयता-to be accepted)- attraction or aversion न-not हि-indeed अस्ति is
Rare is the right-minded person who has neither attraction nor aversion to Dharma, artha, kama and moksha, life or death.
कस्य अपि उदारचित्तस्य हेयोपादेयता न हि अस्ति – It is only some broad-minded person who has neither attraction nor revulsion.
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षेषु जीविते मरणे तथा –to dharma, artha, kama or moksha. A man who has realized the self is ever conscious of the supreme self as eternal. He has no body idea, life or death. These are meaningless to him.
Ch. 17 Sh.7
वाञ्छा न विश्वविलये न द्वेषस्तस्य च स्थितौ ।
यथा जीविकया तस्माद् धन्य आस्ते यथा सुखम् ॥ १७-७॥
vāñchā na viśvavilayē na dvēṣastasya ca sthitau |
yathā jīvikayā tasmād dhanya āstē yathā sukham || 17-7||
वाञ्छा विश्वविलये न द्वेशः तस्य च स्थितौ यथा जीविकया तस्मात् धन्यः आस्ते यथा सुखम् ॥ १७-७॥
वाञ्छा-desire न-not विश्वविलये-( विश्व-world विलये-in dissolution)-in dissolution of universe न- not द्वेशः- aversion तस्य-its च-and स्थितौ-in existence यथा-thus जीविकया-with livelihood, subsisgtence तस्मात्-so धन्यः-blessed आस्ते- lives यथा-thus सुखम्- happy, content
A man of wisdom does not hanker for the dissolution of the world; and he has no dislike for its continuing as it is. The blessed one who is fortunate lives happily with whatever subsistence turns up, as his lot, without asking.
वाञ्छा विश्वविलये न द्वेशः तस्य च स्थितौ –He has no longing for the dissolution of the world, nor has he desire for its continuing. He is just happy as it is. An ignorant person feels that the world is the cause of his misery. For a realized person, does not see the world because he sees only self everywhere.
यथा जीविकया तस्मादत् धन्यः आस्ते यथा सुखम्- whatever livelihood comes about on its own, he lives happily ever steadfast in his identification with self. He makes no effort for his food, medicine, shelter or security. It is so because he has no ego and body identification.
Ch. 17 Sh.8
कृतार्थोऽनेन ज्ञानेनेत्येवं गलितधीः कृती ।
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन्नास्ते यथा सुखम् ॥ १७-८॥
kr̥tārthō:’nēna jñānēnētyēvaṁ galitadhīḥ kr̥tī |
paśyan śr̥ṇvan spr̥śan jighrann aśnannāstē yathā sukham || 17-8||
कृतार्थः अनेन ज्ञानेन इति एवम् गलितधीः कृती पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् आस्ते यथा सुखम् ॥ १७-८॥
कृतार्थः-fulfilled अनेन-by this ज्ञानेन-wisdom, spiritual knowledge इति एवम्-thus गलितधीः-(गलित-dissolved धीः-mind)-absorbed in the self कृती-contended पश्यन्-seeing शृण्वन्-hearing स्पृशन्-touching जिघ्रन्न्-smelling अश्नन्-eating आस्ते-lives यथा-thus सुखम्-happily
Being fulfilled by this wisdom of self, his mind completely dissolved, his goal achieved, the sage lives happily even as he participates in the worldy acts of seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and eating.
कृतार्थः अनेन ज्ञानेन इति एवम् गलितधीः कृती- Being contented with the fruits of knowledge (ज्ञानफलम्) discussed in this chapter, his mind is completely free from all objects and emotions.
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् आस्ते यथा सुखम्- Such a yogi who has no body consciousness nevertheless lives in this world of plurality. The objects of senses give out the same stimuli to him also. But the yogi is indifferent to them He does not react to them. This is like piece of meat kept before a cow and a crow. The cow remains indifferent where as the crow picks it up and flies away. Such a state of existence where the mini lives in this world but stays unconnected is very well explained in Atmabodha Verse 52. Here is the verse
उपाधिस्थोऽपि तद्धर्मैरलिप्तो व्योमवन्मुनिः ।
सर्वविन्मूढवत्तिष्ठेदसक्तो वायुवच्चरेत् ॥ ५२॥
Though the Jnyani lives amongst the upadhis, he stays unconcerned, unattached with them like space. He is like the wind moving about freely.
Ch. 17 Sh.9
शून्या दृष्टिर्वृथा चेष्टा विकलानीन्द्रियाणि च ।
न स्पृहा न विरक्तिर्वा क्षीणसंसारसागरे ॥ १७-९॥
śūnyā dr̥ṣṭirvr̥thā cēṣṭā vikalānīndriyāṇi ca |
na spr̥hā na viraktirvā kṣīṇasaṁsārasāgarē || 17-9||
शून्या दृष्टिः वृथा चेष्टा विकलानि इन्द्रियाणि च न स्पृहा न विरक्तिः अस्ति तस्य वा क्षीणसंसारसागरे ॥ १७-९॥
शून्या-vacant दृष्टिः-look वृथा-purposeless चेष्टा-action विकलानि-inoperative इन्द्रियाणि-senses, faculties च-and न-not स्पृहा- desire न-not विरक्तिः-aversion वा-or क्षीणसंसारसागरे- (क्षीण-exhausted संसार-world, flow of happenings सागरे-ocean)-for one in whom the ocean of the world has dried up.
In one for whom the ebb and flow of universal happening is exhausted and dried up, there is no desire left from which one needs to be attached or detached. Such a person’s look is vacant, action purposeless; and senses or disfunctional.
शून्या दृष्टिः वृथा चेष्टा विकलानि इन्द्रियाणि च –His look is vacant, actions purposeless and the senses are inoperative.
न स्पृहा न विरक्तिः अस्ति तस्य वा क्षीणसंसारसागरे- there is no desire left since the ocean of the world (life and birth) has dried up. The world is likened to an ocean. When one falls in the ocean he is buffeted and carried away hither and thither by the waves which cause untold suffering. Similarly, we are tossed about in the world by the karmas and desire. When one realizes the supreme spirit, his look becomes vacant because he has no self-motive. His actions become purposeless and desultory because he has no end view. Senses become inoperative because they no longer receive any stimulus or impressions from the sense objects.
Ch. 17 Sh.10
न जागर्ति न निद्राति नोन्मीलति न मीलति ।
अहो परदशा क्वापि वर्तते मुक्तचेतसः ॥ १७-१०॥
na jāgarti na nidrāti nōnmīlati na mīlati |
ahō paradaśā kvāpi vartatē muktacētasaḥ || 17-10||
न जागर्ति न निद्राति न उन्मीलति न मीलति अहो परदशा क्व अपि वर्तते मुक्तचेतसः ॥ १७-१०॥
न-not जागर्ति-keeps awake न-not निद्राति-sleeps न-not उन्मीलति-opens his eyes न-not मीलति-closes his eyes अहो-Oh परदशा-supreme state of of consciousness(पर-ultimate दशा-condition, state) क्व-where अपि-ever वर्तते-abides, exists मुक्तचेतसः-liberated soul (मुक्त-liberated चेतसः- of soul)
The man of wisdom neither keeps awake nor sleeps. He neither closes nor opens his eyes. Oh, the liberated soul anywhere enjoys the supreme state of consciousness.
न जागर्ति न निद्राति न उन्मीलति न मीलति- the liberated soul never keeps awake, nor he ever sleeps and he never winks. What is the meaning of he never keeps awake or he never sleeps? When we are awake, we are living in the world of perception. It causes us likes and dislkes. The wise man is dead to the relative world. Can we call him sleeping? No. He is ever awake to the consciousness pervading the world in all conditions. Similarly, can we call a wise man sleeping at any time? No, he is ever awake to the state of self-hood. Sleep indicates the attribute of tamas which is unable to recognize the self. So, he never sleeps. Then what about winking of the eyes? A man of wisdom is said to neither close the eyelids nor open them. The activity of closing and opening of the eyes are in the domain of physical body. A perfect soul although lives in the body he is not aligned with the body functions. He is ever awake to the joyous state of supreme self.
अहो परदशा क्व अपि वर्तते मुक्तचेतसः- The liberated soul enjoys the supreme state of consciousness anywhere and everywhere.
Vedanta employs a set of pleasant contradictions to explain the inexplicable state of self-hood. “He is awake and sleeps, he is near and so far, he is neither subtle nor gross etc. Bible speaks of the sound of silence. Zen Buddhists say ‘eat but do not eat’ to explain that one should eat limited food.
Lord Krishna says in Gita,
या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी।यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः।।2.69।।
That which is night to all beings, the God-realized yogi remains awake in the supreme awareness. That which is day time to all beings, that is the night to the realized yogi.
Ch. 17 Sh.11
सर्वत्र दृश्यते स्वस्थः सर्वत्र विमलाशयः ।
समस्तवासना मुक्तो मुक्तः सर्वत्र राजते ॥ १७-११॥
sarvatra dr̥śyatē svasthaḥ sarvatra vimalāśayaḥ |
samastavāsanā muktō muktaḥ sarvatra rājatē || 17-11||
सर्वत्र दृश्यते स्वस्थः सर्वत्र विमलाशयः समस्त वासना मुक्तः मुक्तः सर्वत्र राजते ॥ १७-११॥
सर्वत्र-everywhere दृश्यते-is seen स्वस्थः (स्व-self स्थः-standing, abiding)- abiding in the self सर्वत्र-everywhere विमलाशयः-pure in heart समस्त-all वासना-vasanas मुक्तः-free from सर्वत्र- everywhere राजते-presides, lives
The liberated person is found everywhere abiding in the self alone. He is pure at heart, free from all desires, revels under all conditions.
सर्वत्र दृश्यते स्वस्थः सर्वत्र विमलाशयः समस्त वासना मुक्तः-
He is found everywhere abiding in self, pure at heart and free from all vasanas. सर्वत्र everywhere, at all times. The liberated one is seen always centred in self (स्वस्थः दृश्यते), free at heart, always free from vasanas, revels in the self everywhere.
विमलाशयः- विमल-free from mala or taint आशयः means thought, intention, abode. This refers to his purity at the heart. He is pure because he has no desires and not attached to worldly objects.
मुक्तः सर्वत्र राजते- A person untouched by desires and passions, freed from vasanas and karmas, revels in his own supreme glory. He has transcended the causal body or avidya and experienced the reality. The world सर्वत्र is repeated three times. He revels in the self irrespective of time, space and object. That means the realzed man abides in the self at all times, in all conditions and at all places. अनंतम्=eternal, देशतः अपरिछिन्नम् no limitation of space. नित्यम्=constant, infinite कालतः अपरिछिन्नम्, no limitation of time and एकम्= वस्तुतः अपरिछिन्नम् no limitation of object. Realize that to be Brahman. That is the true identity of the supreme being.
Ch. 17 Sh.12
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् गृण्हन् वदन् व्रजन् ।
ईहितानीहितैर्मुक्तो मुक्त एव महाशयः ॥ १७-१२॥
paśyan śr̥ṇvan spr̥śan jighrann aśnan gr̥ṇhan vadan vrajan
īhitānīhitairmuktō mukta ēva mahāśayaḥ || 17-12||
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् गृण्हन् वदन् व्रजन् ईहितान् ईहितैः मुक्तः मुक्त एव महाशयः ॥ १७-१२॥
पश्यन्- Seeing शृण्वन्- hearing स्पृशन्- touching जिघ्रन्न्- smelling अश्नन्- eating गृण्हन्- taking वदन्- speaking व्रजन्- walking ईहितान्-attempts ईहितैः-non-attempts मुक्तः-free मुक्त-liberated एव-indeed महाशयः- one who is great-hearted
Seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, taking, speaking, walking, in all these bodily functions the great soul neither exerts effort nor non-effort. The noble minded one is free from all desires and aversion.
पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् गृण्हन् वदन् व्रजन्- The noble minded person is free from all limitations while looking at things, while hearing, while touching, smiling, while taking food, while accepting things, while talking, while walking etc.
ईहितान् ईहितैः र्मुक्तः मुक्त एव महाशयः- in all these functions the great soul does not exert or or puts any effort. He does it spontaneously. He is ever free although externally he seems to be doing the same activities as an ordinary person. He is above action and inaction. He is free from desire, attachment, aversion, likes and dislikes.
ईहितान् ईहितैः इहा (ihaa) means ambition, desire. It should not be confused with the word इह (iha) which means here, in this place, at this time, in this world. Swami Nitya swarupananda says, “True knowledge does not necessarily consist in the cessation of action but in the absence of attachment. The knower of the Self, therefore, even if he acts, does not in reality act. He is ever free, though his behaviour may seem the same as that of others. He is above action and inaction.
Ch. 17 Sh.13
न निन्दति न च स्तौति न हृष्यति न कुप्यति ।
न ददाति न गृण्हाति मुक्तः सर्वत्र नीरसः ॥ १७-१३॥
na nindati na ca stauti na hr̥ṣyati na kupyati |
na dadāti na gr̥ṇhāti muktaḥ sarvatra nīrasaḥ || 17-13||
न निन्दति न च स्तौति न हृष्यति न कुप्यति न ददाति न गृण्हाति मुक्तः सर्वत्र नीरसः ॥ १७-१३॥
न-not निन्दति-blames न-not च-and स्तौति-praises न-not हृष्यति-is pleased न-not कुप्यति-gets angry न-not ददाति-gives न-not गृण्हाति-receives मुक्तः-free, liberagted one सर्वत्र-everywhere नीरसः- free from enjoyment
The liberated soul does not blame or praise, give or take, rejoice or become angry. He is everywhere unattached and free.
न निन्दति न च स्तौति न हृष्यति न कुप्यति न ददाति न गृण्हाति मुक्तः सर्वत्र नीरसः
One who has reached that freedom is never involved in the activities of the body and mind. He is ever aligned with the supreme. So, all the activites of the body and mind are done spontaneously and there is no mind, or intention behind it. If someone slaps him, he does not react, if some one praises him, he stays aloof as if it does not belong to him. He has no desire to take food, to get up or to sleep. He remains same in all conditions. This fact has been explained more thoroughly in the next few verses.
Ch. 17 Sh.14
सानुरागां स्त्रियं दृष्ट्वा मृत्युं वा समुपस्थितम् ।
अविह्वलमनाः स्वस्थो मुक्त एव महाशयः ॥ १७-१४॥
sānurāgāṁ striyaṁ dr̥ṣṭvā mr̥tyuṁ vā samupasthitam |
avihvalamanāḥ svasthō mukta ēva mahāśayaḥ || 17-14||
सानुरागाम् स्त्रियम् दृष्ट्वा मृत्यम् वा समुपस्थितम् अविह्वलमनाः स्वस्थः मुक्तः एव महाशयः ॥ १७-१४॥
सानुरागाम्-loving, passionate स्त्रियम्-a woman दृष्ट्वा-seeing मृत्यम्-death वा-or समुपस्थितम्-approaching, near, at hand अविह्वलमनाः-unperturbed mind स्वस्थः-(स्व-self स्थः-poised, stand) self-poised मुक्तः-free, liberated एव-indeed महाशयः-one who is great hearted
The great-soul is not disturbed and remains self-poised at the sight of a passionate woman or at the the approaching death. He is truly free and ever remains the same.
सानुरागां स्त्रियं दृष्ट्वा मृत्युं वा समुपस्थितम् अविह्वलमनाः स्वस्थो मुक्त एव महाशयः
So far Ashtavakra has given a clear picture of a realized person. There is no attachment to the yogi because he is free from desire. He is never experiencing misery or pleasure in this world. His experiences do not add up to his karma bank because he has no body consciousness.
In this verse, the author continues to give two more examples of the supreme balanced mind of a yogi. This is the final test of a yogi. He is not excited at the sight of a passionate seducing woman or on the impending death. He remains the same always. Such a condition of equanimity is true sign of liberation.
There is a story of how Great Buddha repulsed the seduction of a passionate woman. A young seductress fell in love with Buddha and arrived at his room where he was resting in the night. She was wearing scampy, tranparent dress and carried a basket of fruits. On seeing her, the Buddha opened the door and fell at her feet and said, “Oh! Mother, how can I serve you? With tears falling from her eyes, she apologised to Buddha. In times she became one of the greatest workers in the master’s camp.
Ch. 17 Sh.15
सुखे दुःखे नरे नार्यां सम्पत्सु च विपत्सु च ।
विशेषो नैव धीरस्य सर्वत्र समदर्शिनः ॥ १७-१५॥
sukhē duḥkhē narē nāryāṁ sampatsu ca vipatsu ca |
viśēṣō naiva dhīrasya sarvatra samadarśinaḥ || 17-15||
सुखे दुःखे नरे नार्याम् सम्पत्सु च विपत्सु च विशेषः न एव धीरस्य सर्वत्र समदर्शिनः ॥ १७-१५॥
सुखे-in joy, happiness दुःखे-in grief, misery नरे-in man नार्याम्-in woman सम्पत्सु-in prosperity च-and विपत्सु-adversity च-and विशेषः-speciality न-not एव-indeed धीरस्य-of the wise one सर्वत्र-everywhere, in every thing समदर्शिनः-( सम- same, equal दर्शिनःthose who see)- seeing the same
The sage sees no difference between the pair of opposites like happiness and misery, man and woman, adversity and success. Everything is seen to be the same. He maintains equanimity.
सुखे दुःखे नरे नार्याम् सम्पत्सु च विपत्सु च विशेषः न एव धीरस्य सर्वत्र समदर्शिनः
A man of perfection is the same in all circumstances faced by him. Joy or grief, man or woman, in wealth or poverty, a plant or an animal all mean the same to him. The sense objects par se causes no restlessness in an individual. Similarly, the mind on its own does not cause any disturbance. The trouble comes when the sense objects send desirous stimiulii to the mind and the latter responds to it. That causes action and attachment. In the case of a yogi his mind is stripped of all desires and vasanas. He has no egoism, no body- consciousness. Swami Chinmayananda says, “The serene tranquil mind of the liberated one has no attachment and duality. Such a person, well established in the self, works among the plurality of objects and knows that these are all the sports of the supreme”
Ch. 17 Sh.16
न हिंसा नैव कारुण्यं नौद्धत्यं न च दीनता ।
नाश्चर्यं नैव च क्षोभः क्षीणसंसरणे नरे ॥ १७-१६॥
na hiṁsā naiva kāruṇyaṁ nauddhatyaṁ na ca dīnatā |
nāścaryaṁ naiva ca kṣōbhaḥ kṣīṇasaṁsaraṇē narē || 17-16||
न हिंसा न एव कारुण्यम् न औद्धत्यम् न च दीनता न आश्चर्यम् न एव च क्षोभः क्षीणसंसरणे नरे ॥ १७-१६॥
न-not हिंसा-harm, voilence न-not एव-indeed कारुण्यम्-mercy, compassion न-not औद्धत्यम्-arrogance, pride न-not च-and दीनता-humility न-not आश्चर्यम्-wonder, amazement न-not एव-surely च-and क्षोभः-agitation क्षीणसंसरणे-(क्षीण-exhausted संसरणे- wordly life)-whose wordly life is exhausted नरे-in that man
In the yogi whose worldly life is exhausted, there is neither violence nor mercy, arrogance or humility, neither amazement nor agitation. He has transcended his role as a person.
न हिंसा न एव कारुण्यम् न औद्धत्यम् न च दीनता न आश्चर्यम् न एव च क्षोभः क्षीणसंसरणे नरे
न हिंसा न एव कारुण्यम् न औद्धत्यम् न च दीनता न आश्चर्यम् न एव च क्षोभः -The person who is liberated in life (जीवन्मुक्त) is not personally involved in the activities of his body, mind and intellect. He is not connected with the contradictory emotions such as harm and mercy, amazement and agitation. All his actions are involuntary. He looks and behaves like an automation.
क्षीणसंसरणे नरे – In such a person in whom the ebb of flow of happening is exhausted has necessarily come to an end. He has exhausted his worldy life. He has transcednded his role as a person.
Ch. 17 Sh.17
न मुक्तो विषयद्वेष्टा न वा विषयलोलुपः ।
असंसक्तमना नित्यं प्राप्ताप्राप्तमुपाश्नुते ॥ १७-१७॥
na muktō viṣayadvēṣṭā na vā viṣayalōlupaḥ |
asaṁsaktamanā nityaṁ prāptāprāptamupāśnutē || 17-17||
न मुक्तः विषयद्वेष्टा न वा विषयलोलुपः असंसक्तमनाः नित्यम् प्राप्त अप्राप्तम् उपाश्नुते ॥ १७-१७॥
न-not मुक्तः-one who is liberated विषयद्वेष्टा-( विषय-object द्वेष्टा-who hates, hater)-has aversion for the sense objects for न-not वा-or विषयलोलुपः(विषय- objects लोलुपः- covets, craves. Greedy)- one who craves for the objectrs of senses असंसक्तमनाः-with detached mind नित्यम्-always, ever प्राप्तम्- what is attained अप्राप्तम्-what is not attained उपाश्नुते-enjoys
The liberated one has neither aversion nor craving for the sense objects. Always with detached mind he enjoys the attained as well as non-attained.
मुक्तः न विषयद्वेष्टा न वा विषयलोलुपः- The liberated yogi has neither aversion nor craving for the sense objects. The dualities of Likes and dislikes, aversion and craving, love and hate are the emotions experienced by a person who has a sense of attachment to the objects and to his own body. A liberated one is freed from such attachment and so, indifferent to all his experiences.
असंसक्तमनाः नित्यम् प्राप्त अप्राप्तम् उपाश्नुते –With a non-challant mind, the liberated yogi enjoys the attained as well as non-attained. He expects nothing nor avoids anything. उपाश्नुते means he enjoys, partakes. Attachment is the source of enjoyment for ordinary people. They enjoy a thing which comes to their possession. A yogi is indifferent to objects. Therefore, he is above objectibve enjoyment. He is ever happy with attainement or without attainement.
Ch. 17 Sh.18
शून्यचित्तो न जानाति कैवल्यमिव संस्थितः ॥ १७-१८॥
śūnyacittō na jānāti kaivalyamiva saṁsthitaḥ || 17-18||
समाधानसमाधानहिताहितविकल्पनाः शून्यचित्तः न जानाति कैवल्यम् इव संस्थितः ॥ १७-१८॥
समाधानसमाधानहिताहितविकल्पनाः (समाधान-absdorbed in contemplation असमाधान-not absorbed in contemplation हित-good and अहित-evil विकल्पनाः-ideas of the mind)-mental alternatives of contemplation and non- contemplation शून्यचित्तः-(शून्य-empty चित्तः-man)- a man of empty mind referes to wise or realized man न-not जानाति-knows – कैवल्यम्-in the absolute state इव- as if it were संस्थितः-establised, abiding
The idea of contemplation or non-contemplation, good or evil, these are mental conflicts. For the wise man whose mind is empty of thought, no such distinction can be known. He abides as it were in a state of alone-ness where self is found without any effort. It is in this sense that the self is described as ‘absolute’.
समाधानसमाधानहिताहितविकल्पनाः (समाधान असमाधान हित अहित विकल्पनाः)-the mental variables of absorption and not absorption, and the ideas of good and evil, beautiful and ugly, joy and sorrow do not affect him. All such conflicts arise only in connection with relative life which he has transcended.
शून्यचित्तः न जानाति- is not experienced by the individual of vacant mind. This epithet refers to the realized soul because he has transcended the mind and intellect. He is beyond the beyond (परात् परः). He is unattached to the world
कैवल्यम् इव संस्थितः- He is filled with the consciousness of Atman alone. कैवल्यम् detachment from all connections, the only one. He abodes in the only one absolute.
Ch. 17 Sh.19
निर्ममो निरहंकारो न किंचिदिति निश्चितः ।
अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशः कुर्वन्नपि करोति न ॥ १७-१९॥
nirmamō nirahaṁkārō na kiṁciditi niścitaḥ |
antargalitasarvāśaḥ kurvannapi karōti na || 17-19||
निर्ममः निरहंकारः न किंचित् इति निश्चितः अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशः कुर्वन् अपि करोति न ॥ १७-१९॥
निर्ममः-devoid of my-ness (ego) निरहंकारः-devoid of “I” -ness न-not किंचित्-anything इति-thus निश्चितः-one who is sure अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशः-(अन्तर्-within गलित-dssolved, melted सर्वाशः-all expectations)- with all desires melted away from within कुर्वन् अपि-although doing (appears to be doing) करोति न- does not do
The man of knowledge though he may appear to perform action does not indeed act. Devoid of desires, free of thought of “I” and “mine”, he knows with absolute certianinty that nothing exists.
निर्ममः निरहंकारः न किंचित् इति निश्चितः –He is free from claims of ownership and beneficiary., because he knows that all mundane happiness is nothing before what he already enjoys.
अन्तर्गलितसर्वाशः कुर्वन् अपि करोति न – with all inner desires melted away although he seems to perform action, indeed he does not perform any action. Expectation, desire, and attachment are the root cause of action. When the cause is removed, there is no action. Then what about his actions like पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् गृण्हन् वदन् व्रजन्? They are involuntary or spontaneous action without application of ego. ईहितान् ईहितैः मुक्तः मुक्त एव महाशयः Such actions do not cause karmic results. The wise man is free from responsibility or the action or its result. The body equipment performs the action. He is not dresponsible for the action or its result. He roams about like a royal at his own pleasure (स्वच्छन्दचारिणः). He lives in true happiness (अहम् आसे यथासुखम्).
Ch. 17 Sh.20
दशां कामपि सम्प्राप्तो भवेद् गलितमानसः ॥ १७-२०॥
daśāṁ kāmapi samprāptō bhavēd galitamānasaḥ || 17-20||
मनःप्रकाशसंमोहस्वप्नजाड्यविवर्जितः दशाम् काम् अपि सम्प्राप्तः भवेत् गलितमानसः ॥ १७-२०॥
मनःप्रकाशसंमोहस्वप्नजाड्यविवर्जितः-(मनः-mind प्रकाश-display संमोह-delusion स्वप्न-dream जाड्य-dulless विवर्जितः-free from)- free from display of mind, delusilon, dream and dullness दशाम्-codition काम्-indescribabale अपि-even सम्प्राप्तः-attained भवेत्-becomes गलितमानसः (गलित-dissolved, melted away मानसः-one whose mind has become)-whose mind has melted away
An indescribable stage is attained by the man of realization. His mind having melted away, its function having ceased to operate becomes free from delusion, dreaming and dullness.
मनःप्रकाशसंमोहस्वप्नजाड्यविवर्जितः- A man of self-knowledge has his mind completely perged of all delusion, dream and dullness that obstruct the vision of reality. In such a state all functions of the mind (its vruttis) cease to operate. Such a mind is as good as destroyed. such a state of the mind all its functions चित्तवृत्ति, cease to operate and it is as good as destroyed. It is called मनोनाश.
दशाम् काम् अपि सम्प्राप्तः भवेत् गलितमानसः- To the man whose mind is put to rest, the final realization bursts forth of which no description is ever possible.