Atma Bodha – Chapter6

Atma Bodha

Vishnu Bapat

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जीवब्रह्म ऐक्यम्- Unity of soul and super- soul
Introduction to Nidhidyasana Verse 30 to 39

Verse 30
By negating all upadhis as ‘neti, neti,’ realize oneness of jiva and Ishwara.
निषिध्य निखिलोपाधीन्नेति नेतीति वाक्यतः ।
विद्यादैक्यं महावाक्यैर्जीवात्मपरमात्मनोः ॥ ३०॥
निषिध्य निखिलोपाधीन् नेति नेति वाक्यतः विद्यात् ऐक्यम् महावाक्यैः जीवात्म परमात्मनोः
निषिध्य- after negating निखिलोपाधीन्-all conditionings नेति नेति–as “not this not this” वाक्यतः- by spiritual statements (commandments) विद्यात्-one should know ऐक्यम्- oneness महावाक्यैः –by the great mahavakyas जीवात्म- परमात्मनोः-of the individual soul and supreme soul
By negating all the upadhis with the help of scriptural statement “it isn’t this, it isn’t this,” realize the oneness of the individual soul and the supreme soul as indicated by the great “mahavakyas”.

निषिध्य निखिलोपाधीन् – उपाधि means substitution, superimposition. We have studied उपाधि from shloka 10 to 15. Brahman has upadhis at two levels, the level of macrocosm or samashti and the level of microcosm or vyashti. The upadhis belong to the realm of ajnyana (अज्ञान) or nescience and are extraneous to Brahman. They are anatma in nature. At the collective level the pure consciousness is called by such epithets as Omnipresent Lord, creator, protector, or destroyer of universe. He is also called Ishwara. At the individual level the upadhis of Brahman are notions like limited power and knowledge, Jiva or individual soul, three bodies, five koshas etc. नेति नेति वाक्यतः –as per the scriptural statement “not this, not this”. This well-known injunction is taken from a mantra in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad written below.
तत्त्वमस्यादिवाक्येन स्वात्मा हि प्रतिपादितः ।नेति नेति श्रुतिर्ब्रूयाद अनृतं पाञ्चभौतिकम् ।। २५।।

By such sentences as “That thou art,” your own Self is affirmed. The Shruti says, regarding all that is composed of five elements, as untrue and so, “Not this, not this” is the self.

नेति नेति is the method of Vedic analysis of negation. It is the keynote of Vedic enquiry. In this process the sadhaka negates identification with all पाञ्चभौतिक (material) things of the world denying body, name and form, intellect, senses and all adjuncts till ultimately, he is left with only pure consciousness and declares, ‘That is atman”. We need to slowly and firmly negate the three bodies, 5 koshas, and 5 pranas as ‘not Atman’ or not me because they are subject to change and are temporary in nature.
During meditation (निधिध्यासन), the meditator himself becomes the object of meditation. In meditation I have to claim myself as original consciousness that does not undergo any change. The subject and object of meditation become one.

विद्यात् ऐक्यम् महावाक्यैः –know the oneness proclaimed by the mahavakyas. महावाक्य or great Vedic aphorisms are four in number. Here are they:
1. प्रज्ञानम् ब्रह्म Prajnanam Brahma (Brahman is prajna or Consciousness) from Aitareya Upanshad. Of Rig veda
2. अहम् ब्रह्म अस्मि Aham Brahma Asmi (I am Brahman)
Mandukya Upanishad Atharva Veda
3. तत् त्वम् असि Tat Tvam Asi (Though are That) Chandogya Upanishad of Sama Veda
4. अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म Ayam Atma Brahma (This self is Brahman) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Yajurvda

जीवात्म परमात्मनोः –of the individual jiva and supreme Brahman. All these four aphorisms point out to the non-duality of Jiva or the individual soul and the supreme soul or Ishwara. The reality behind both is Brahman or pure consciousness. By negating the upadhis at individual and total level one can realize oneness of Jiva and Ishwara.

Introduction to Nidhidyasana Verse 30 to 39
In the verse 30 the subject of Nidhidyasana is started. By the teaching of Guru, Shravana and Manana, we become aware of what is extraneous to Atman. Our mind is so much brainwashed to believe in the comfort zone of body and senses so that any new idea becomes a mental block. The mind will not at once accept that I am not the limited soul but the total all-powerful consciousness. So, in Nidhidyasana we have to de-condition the mind and inculcate into it the reality of non-dual Brahman. Ultimately all the information about atma and anatma, have to be practically applied by us to see a transformation in us.

Verse 31
The body and its upadhis are fleeting in nature like water bubbles.
I am the pure consciousness, different from them. – Annamaya kosha

आविद्यकं शरीरादि दृश्यं बुद्बुदवत्क्षरम् ।
एतद्विलक्षणं विद्यादहं ब्रह्मेति निर्मलम् ॥ ३१॥
आविद्यकम् शरीरादि दृश्यम् बुद्बुदवत् क्षरम् एतत् विलक्षणम् विद्यात् अहम् ब्रह्म इति निर्मलम्
This verse may be compared with Shravanam. श्रवणम्
आविद्यकम्-up to the causal body शरीरादि-body etc. दृश्यम्-perceived objects बुद्बुदवत्-like bubbles क्षरम्-perishable एतत्-all these विलक्षणम्-different, separate विद्यात्-realize अहम्-I ब्रह्म-Brahman इति-thus निर्मलम्-pure

The body and other perceivable objects are products of ignorance and are transient like bubbles of water. Realize through discrimination that “I am the stainless Brahman completely different from these objects”

In the previous verse 30, the author suggested us (निषिध्य निखिलोपाधीन्नेति नेतीति वाक्यतः) to negate all upadhis as indicated in spiritual injunction, as “it isn’t this,” it isn’t this”. नेति नेति”. In the following verses he demonstrates how to negate this anatma and align only with atman.

आविद्यकम् शरीरादि दृश्यम् – all perceivable objects like the body, mind and intellect etc., are of the nature of ignorance. The list of शरीरादि includes sharira (three layers) and its five sheaths, indriyas (sense organs), manas (mind), buddhi (intellect) and ahankara (ego) together called by one name of अंतःकरण (internal equipment). Three layers of the body are gross body, subtle body and causal body. The five sheaths are annamaya, prana maya, manomaya, Vijnyanamaya and ananda maya. Tattva Bodha describes causal body as अनिर्वाच्य अनादि अविद्यारूपम् meaning inexplicable, beginning-less, and of the nature of ignorance. So आविद्यकम् शरीरादि दृश्यम् means three levels of perceptible sharira up to the level of avidya or causal body. दृश्यम् means all things that are perceived. All perceivable objects are of the nature of ignorance. दृश्यम् or perceivable objects are upadhis on the self. So, in this verse also the author continues his discussion of negation of निखिल उपाधीन् all upadhis or conditioning (ref verse 30).
बुद्बुदवत् क्षरम्- all perceivable objects are perishable like bubbles. All the perceivable objects are of the nature of ignorance and a product of Maya. They are transient in nature like water bubbles.
एतत् विलक्षणम् विद्यात् अहम् ब्रह्म इति निर्मलम् –Realize “I am pure Brahman different from all these extraneous objects (drushayam or upadhis).
Verse 32
स्वरूप लक्षण from verse 32 to 36
I am free from changes of the body such as child-hood and old age, I have no attachment to sense object because I have no sense organs. Pranamaya kosha. क्रिया शक्ति
देहान्यत्वान्न मे जन्मजराकार्श्यलयादयः ।
शब्दादिविषयैः सङ्गो निरिन्द्रियतया न च ॥ ३२॥
देहान्यत्वात् न च मे जन्मजराकार्श्यलयादयः शब्दादिविषयैः सङ्गः निरिन्द्रियतया न च
देहान्यत्वात्-because of its being other than the body न-not च-and मे-for me जन्मजराकार्श्यलयादयः- (जन्म जरा कार्श्य लय आदयः) birth, old age, senility, death etc. शब्दादिविषयैः- (शब्द आदि विषयैः) with sense objects such as sound etc. सङ्गः-association निरिन्द्रियतया-because I am without sense organs न च- not
I am free from changes such as birth, old age, weakness and death; for I am different from the body. I have nothing to do with the sense objects such as sound and taste, for I am without sense organs.
The verses 32 and 33 may be compared to मननम् on the self. The following meditation (slokas 32 to 36) is suggested in order to strengthen the knowledge of the soul’s oneness with Brahman

देहान्यत्वात् न च मे जन्मजराकार्श्यलयादयः- देह अन्यत्वात् न च मे जन्म जरा कार्श्य लय आदयः- An account of my separate identity from the body I do not suffer the modifications of the body such as birth, old age, emaciation, death etc. These changes are absent in me, the absolute self. Tattva Bodha explains the six body modifications as under:
अस्ति जायते वर्धते विपरिणमते अपक्षीयते
विनश्यतीति षड्विकारवदेतत् स्थूलशरीरम्

meaning existence, birth, growth, maturity, decay and death; These are the six phases which our body goes through in the course of our life.

The first line of the verse asks us to meditate on the fact that I am witness principle, different from body and therefore, from the changes that the body undergoes.
शब्दादिविषयैः सङ्गः–I am free from the grip of sense objects (शब्द- आदि- विषयैः) like shabda (sound) because I have no sense-organs. शब्दादिविषयैः सङ्गः means association with sense objects like shabda (sound). There are five sense objects namely शब्द (sound), स्पर्श (touch), रूप (form), रस (taste) and गन्ध (smell). For brevity, they are called शब्द- आदि- विषयैः. The sense objects stand for all objects of the world which is the cause of desire, attraction and repulsion. असंगोहम् असंगोहम् असंगोहम् पुन: पुन:. In the meditation the sadhaka by getting detachment to sharira and its entire gamut of emotions he is able to obtain eternal bliss.
The second line of shloka, asks us to disown the mind and sense organs (मनोमय कोश प्राणमय कॊश). They belong to the subtle body but not to me. I am different from these.
निरिन्द्रियतया न च – I am not associated with sense objects because I have no sense organs. Just as for a waker the dream objects and experiences have no connection, “I and sharira too has no connection”.
Verse 33
I am distinct from the mind and its emotions; I am free from breath;
I am pure consciousness. Negation of Manomaya kosha and Pranamaya kosha इछ्छा शक्ति

अमनस्त्वान्न मे दुःखरागद्वेषभयादयः ।
अप्राणो ह्यमनाः शुभ्र इत्यादि श्रुतिशासनात् ॥ ३३॥
अमनस्त्वात् न मे दुःखरागद्वेषभयादयः अप्राणः हि अमनाः शुभ्र इत्यादि श्रुतिशासनात्
अमनस्त्वात्-because of not being the mind न-not मे-for me दुःखरागद्वेषभयादयः- (दुःख राग द्वेष भय आदयः) Emotions like sorrow, attachment, malice, fear etc. अप्राणः-being without breath हि-indeed अमनाः-without mind शुभ्र-pure इत्यादि- etc. श्रुतिशासनात्- commandment of great scriptures.

I am distinct from mind and so I am free from mental emotions like sorrow, attachment, hate, and fear. As declared by the Shruti, I am distinct from breath, and I am imperishable. I am pure consciousness.

It was suggested in verse 30 that all the anatma vesture should be refuted one by one. In verses 30 and 31 We started with the external physical body (स्थूल शरीर). In verse 33 we are negating manomaya kosha and pranayama kosha. Manomaya kosha consist of manas, buddhi, ahankara, chitta and ego. The pranayama consisting of 5 pranas and is responsible for physiological functions of the body.

अमनस्त्वात् न मे दुःखरागद्वेषभयादयः- Since I am distinct from mind, I am free from mental emotions like sorrow, attachment, hate, and fear (दुःखः रागः द्वेषः भयः आदयः).
I am अमनः
What is manomaya Kosha?
Let us see the definition in Tattva Bodha.
मनॊमयः कॊषः कः? मनश्च ज्ञानेन्द्रियपञ्चकं मिलित्वा यॊ भवति स मनोमय कॊशः ।।
Manomaya kosha is the product of combination of mind and five organs of action. The organs of action are: ear, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. (श्रोत्रं त्वक् चक्षु: रसना घ्राणम् इति पंच ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि)

अप्राणः हि अमनाः शुभ्र इत्यादि श्रुतिशासनात् – As declared by Shruti I am pure, free from mind and Prana. इत्यादि पदात् काम, क्रोध, मॊह, मद, मत्सर are to be added.
I am अप्राणः devoid of 5 pranas and I am अमनः devoid of mind. By an extension of the meaning, we may say Atman is different from Pranayama Kosha, and Manomaya Kosha. Both belong to subtle body.
What is mental sheath? The mind and the five organs of knowledge together form the mental sheath. Tattva Bodha says:

श्रोत्रं त्वक् चक्षु: रसना घ्राणम् इति पंच ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि।
The ear, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose.

We have already seen that the Annamaya kosha represents the physical body. Pranamaya kosha which lies inner to it represents physiological personality or क्रिया शक्ति the power of execution. Inner to it lays the manomaya or mind sheath or the psychological personality. It is called इछ्छा शक्ति because any activity is conceived in the mind.

The five pranas are Prana, Apana, Vyana, Samana, and Udana. The five organs of action are tongue, hands, legs, anus and genitals. (वाक्पाणिपादपायूपस्थानीति पञ्चकर्मेन्द्रियाणि)
Atman is other than prana, mind and senses, because these are transitory and endowed with a beginning and an end. In this way during nidhidyasana, the sadhaka lets go all anatma components one by one.
Acharya Shankara says:
मनो-बुद्धि-अहंकार चित्तादि नाहं ,न च श्रोत्र-जिह्वे न च घ्राण नेत्रे ।न च व्योम-भूमी न तेजो न वायु ,चिदानंदरूपं शिवोहं शिवोहं ॥ १॥

Verse 34
Verse 34 to 39 निधिध्यासनम् is continued
From verse 26 to 38 in 12 versus the role of discriminating intellect is discussed. In the next 4 versus the most important step of nidhidyasana is discussed. So far, we were discussing on negation (“neti-neti”) of anatma aspect. Now time has come to focus on positive assertion. The divinity of spirit is asserted in nidhidyasana.

I am without attributes, actionless, eternal, free from desire, immaculate, without vasana, change, and form, ever liberated and pure

निर्गुणो निष्क्रियो नित्यो निर्विकल्पो निरंजनः ।
निर्विकारो निराकारो नित्यमुक्तोऽस्मि निर्मलः ॥ ३४॥
निर्गुणः निष्क्रियः नित्यः निर्विकल्पः निरंजनः निर्विकारः निराकारः नित्यमुक्तः अस्मि निर्मलः
निर्गुणः-without attributes निष्क्रियः-without actions नित्यः- eternal निर्विकल्पः-without any desire or thought निरंजनः-without any dirt निर्विकारः-without any change निराकारः- without attributes नित्यमुक्तः-ever liberated अस्मि-I am निर्मलः-ever pure

Atma is without attributes and actions. It is eternal, without any desire or thought, without any vasanas, without any change, without form, ever liberated and ever pure.

निर्गुणः- without attributes such as sattva, rajas and tamas with are the qualities of prakruti.
निष्क्रियः-without activity because he is free from the body, senses and mind.
नित्यः-eternal because it is beyond space, time and casualty.
निर्विकल्पः-without any desire and thought because he is not a body with mind and intellect
निरंजनः-without any dirt meaning vasanas of sanchita, prarabdha and kriya mana. I have no burden I am free right now.
निर्विकारः-without any change. Change is the hallmark of matter. Spirit has no change
निराकारः-without form. Form and attributes are for the matter
नित्यमुक्तः-ever free or liberated
निर्मलः- without impurity, ever pure, nitya shuddha because I have no impurities of the mind like, hatred, jealously, envy etc.
I am division less (अखंडम्) because I am all pervading. I am of the nature of happiness (आनंदम्) because I have no sense of inadequacy. I am complete (पूर्णः). I am non-dual (अद्वयम्).
To understand this principle, we must visit a jeweller’s shop. We see such a variety of ornaments like bangles, necklace, bracelet, earrings, wedding rings, anklets etc. Underlying substance in all of them is gold alone. Now revisit the world of plurality. In all the objects and variety of species we see around us, is the core substance called Atma or consciousness, which is me.
अस्मि- I am. When the above superimposed upadhis (limitations) are negated what remains is “अस्मि- I am”.
This is existence, awareness and bliss. On this platform rests all universe. -Chidatmananda

Verse 35
Like space I pervade everywhere, I am pure,
unattached, stainless and motionless

अहमाकाशवत्सर्वं बहिरन्तर्गतोऽच्युतः ।
सदा सर्वसमशुद्धो निःसङ्गो निर्मलोऽचलः ॥ ३५॥
अहम् आकाशवत् सर्वम् बहिः अन्तः गतः अच्युतः सदा सर्वसमः शुद्धः निःसङ्गः निर्मलः अचलः
अहम्-I आकाशवत्-like space सर्वम्-all things बहिः-outside अन्तः-inside गतः-extended अच्युतः-changeless सदा-always सर्वसमः-same in all शुद्धः-pure निःसङ्गः-unattached निर्मलः-stainless अचलः-motionless
Like space, I am present on the inside and outside of all things. I am the same in all, pure, unattached, stainless and motionless at all times.
अहम् आकाशवत् सर्वम् बहिः अन्तः गतः–Like space I fill all things inside and outside. गतः means pervade (व्याप्तः). We can only compare the space to self but the self is beyond it and being non-dual has no comparison with anything.
I, the pure Consciousness, am like space, which is all pervasive (अहम् आकाशवत् सर्वम्), both inside and outside (बहिः अन्तः गतः). There is no place where, I do not exist. Shankara says that I manifest as Existence in inert forms (the Sat aspect of the Consciousness, the “is-ness” of any object) and as the life principle or Chaitanya in living forms (Sat and Chit aspect of the Consciousness). A devotee says that the Atma is all pervading but now the Vedantin has to say I am all pervading, as he has to train his mind to see the common thread which binds together all the plurality in this world, and he does this during nidhidyasana. He should be able to really feel the oneness among the multiplicity, and there should not be even an iota of doubt in his mind regarding this. अच्युतः- – not falling or downgrading. च्युति means fall, downgrade.
The word Achyuta means never fallen and never subject to arrival and departure. I exist in all three periods of time. There is not any time when I don’t exist.
सदा सर्वसमः शुद्धः- I am always same in all, and ever pure.
सदा सर्वसमः means the same or uniform all forever.
Krishna says:
विद्या विनय संपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि,
समम् सर्व भूतेषु तिष्टंतम् परमॆश्वरम्.

An Ajnyani sees the difference of नाम रूप (name and form), whereas a jnyani sees the basis of the substratum which is sat and chit.

Chidatmananda adds: The Original Consciousness is uniform in everybody and there is no gradation. There may seem to be gradation due to the differences in the subtle body (as it is the reflecting medium). Just as a reflection in a dirty mirror will be dirty and in a clean mirror be clean, similarly the clearer, cleaner and tranquil the mind, the divinity shines forth more brilliantly in it. That is why great Mahatmas have a ring of halo around them and people are attracted to them like bees to a flower!
सदा निःसङ्गः free from relationship. This means not related to anything or being in the creation. In nidhidyasana, I have to meditate on the fact that, like space, I am not attached to or dependent on anything in the world. All the roles which I perform as daughter, mother, wife, friend etc., are like costumes, which are not me. Just as in a theatre, the actors perform different roles at different times in different dramas, but never for a moment forget their true identity, similarly I should sincerely perform all the roles allocated to me but never for a moment forget that these are just temporary roles assigned to me.
सदा निर्मलः just like space, I am ever pure, never for a moment sallied by circumstances. The space remains ever pure, irrespective of all the storms arising in it. Similarly, irrespective of all the events which take place in my life, I, साक्षी चैतन्य may illumine all the events but am never agitated or dirtied by them. I have to understand this fact during nidhidyasana.
सदा अचलः – Chidatmananda says: this word literally means motionless, but the implied meaning is that the mind is unshaken due to the events in the outside word. Usually we get agitated, elated, depressed, angry etc. due to the various things, beings and situations we come across in life. Emotionally and psychologically every small event disturbs us. A small event as the neighbor not smiling at me while passing by has the capacity to spoil our whole day, without realizing that the neighbor may be preoccupied in his own thoughts and may not even have noticed you. But I, the chaitanya, am like space which does not get disturbed whether a marriage procession is passing through or a funeral procession.There are three types of mind. One is a gross insensitive mind which hurts other and the second is an extremely sensitive mind which gets hurt easily. Both these are detrimental for our spiritual progress. The third type of mind is that of a jnyani, which is sensitive enough not to hurt others and strong enough not to get hurt!!! We have to cultivate such a mind by the practice of nidhidyasana.
We have to add the adjective सदा which means always, ever, to each of the nouns. So, it becomes सदा सर्वसमः, सदा शुद्धः, सदा निःसङ्गः, सदा निर्मलः, सदा अचलः.
Verse 36
I am supreme Brahman (अहम् सत्यम् अहम् ब्रह्म)
which is the nature of changless truth, knowledge and infinity

नित्यशुद्धविमुक्तैकमखण्डानन्दमद्वयम् ।
सत्यं ज्ञानमनन्तं यत्परं ब्रह्माहमेव तत् ॥ ३६॥
नित्यशुद्धः विमुक्तः एकम् अखण्डानन्दम् अद्वयम् सत्यम् ज्ञानम् अनन्तम् यत् परम् ब्रह्म अहम् एव तत्

नित्यशुद्धः -नित्यः-eternal शुद्धः-pure. Pure means, free from ignorance and its effects विमुक्तः-free from birth and death एकम्-one, unlimited by existence of another entity of its kind अखण्डानन्दम्- indivisible bliss अखण्डः- I have no parts or grades of happiness. अद्वयम्-non-dual, unlimited by the existence of one of my kind सत्यम्-truth ज्ञानम्-knowledge अनन्तम्-infinite यत् परम् ब्रह्म- that supreme Brahman अहम् –I एव-alone तत्-that

After negating all anatma objects from verse 30 as nothing but upadhis, the seer now positively asserts in verse 35 to 38 what is this nature Brahman. This is called Swarupa laxana. In these slokas 35-36 there is a discussion of Brahman as defined in Upanishads like Taittiriya. This section should be practiced in nidhidhyasana.

I am verily that supreme Brahman, which is eternal, stainless, and free; which is one, indivisible, and non-dual. It is of the nature of changeless truth- knowledge- infinity.
नित्यशुद्धः – I am ever pure. I am not affected by the impurities of the dualities like sukha, dukha, attractions and repulsions, desire etc. at any time.
नित्य विमुक्तः- I am always liberated and free – in the past, the present or the future.
नित्य एकम् – I am the one and the only one without a second.
अखण्डानन्दम्- अखण्डः means without a break, seamless. In normal people there is degree of happiness like moda, pramoda and ananda.
इष्ट दर्शनजम् सुखम् is moda.,
इष्ट ग्रहणजम् सुखम्, Is pramoda
इष्ट अनुभवजम् सुखम्. Is ananda

My happiness is ever the same high grade. I am the eternal Bliss. I have no inadequacies. I do not miss anything. I do not have any regrets. When any thing comes into my life or goes out of my life, it creates no ripples in me. I am the ananda, the eternal bliss.
अद्वयम् – I am one without a second.  I am all pervading, including the sharira trayam and the world. I am the cause of everything. Everything is merely my reflection and so, is Mithya. I am therefore the only one without a second.
सत्यम् ज्ञानम् अनन्तम् ब्रह्म – This is again the definition of Brahma. This definition is taken from Taittiriya Upanishad. Satyam means Pure Existence. Death or dissolution of the world does not affect my existence.
Jnyanam means – I am pure consciousness.
Anantam means – I am beginning-less and end-less but is infinite in time and space.
यत् परम् ब्रह्म — The one with these characteristics is the Parama Brahma (Supreme Brahman).
अहम् एव तत् – I am indeed that Parama Brahman. I am the absolute, infinite Brahman.
Swami Gurubhaktananda says:
“Again, an assertion is made as to who we really are. We have nine qualities of the spirit painted before us in a panorama of exquisite beauty.
To contemplate on these thoughts is the way to directly experience the Self. This concludes the Nidhidyasana or meditation upon the Self. In the process, we have unearthed the richest spiritual treasure. The Brahma Nishtha sage drinks his fill of these qualities as though they are nectar to him.
Verse 37
By contant identification with the thought of Brahman,
(अहम् ब्रह्म) ignorance of body identity is destroyed

एवं निरन्तराभ्यस्ता ब्रह्मैवास्मीति वासना ।
हरत्यविद्याविक्षेपान् रोगानिव रसायनम् ॥ ३७॥

एवम् निरन्तर अभ्यस्ता ब्रह्मैव अस्मि इति वासना हरति अविद्या विक्षेपान् रोगान् इव रसायनम्
एवम्-in this way निरन्तर- constantly अभ्यस्ता- practiced ब्रह्मैव-Brahman only अस्मि-I am इति-thus वासना-impression हरति-destroys अविद्या-ignorance and विक्षेपान्-agitation रोगान्-disease इव-like रसायनम्-elixir

Thus, by the impression created by constant practice of the thought “I am Brahman”, one destroys ignorance and mental agitations, just as an elixir destroys diseases.
Swami Dayanada says: In this shloka it is explained how there is a shift in the attitude of the sadhaka from worldly feeling to divine feeling due to the continuous practice of nidhidyasana or Vedantik meditation. Nidhidyasana is the practice of internalization of the knowledge where Jnyana becomes vijynana. Bookish knowledge is assimilated by practice.
Our reaction in the world to different types of situation is purely mechanical and borne out of our vasanas (proclivity or tendencies gained over several births). Very rarely it is a conscious decision. Our tendencies stored in the sub-conscious mind makes us to react in a particular way.
As a Jiva I have accumulated many vasanas which dictate my behavior in the world. Nidhidyasana makes us to remember that I am not a limited Jiva but the changeless Chaitanya. The shift in our attitude makes us move from samsara vasana to Brahma vasana.

एवम् निरन्तर अभ्यस्ता ब्रह्मैव अस्मि इति वासना –Thus, by constant, endless practice of the thought “I am Brahman”. एवम् means in this way In what way? As explained in the previous shloka, नित्यशुद्धविमुक्तः एकम् अखण्डानन्दम् अद्वयम् सत्यम् ज्ञानम् अनन्तम् यत् परम् ब्रह्म अहम् एव तत् अस्मि. This is the instruction for Nidhidyasana. The sadhaka repeats all these attributes as that belong to him. After one hour of practice, we go back to the outside world where we have our own identification as a boss, as a driver or husband, wife, son etc. There is always a conflict in relationship when we may be emotionally upset which is not good for a sadhaka. For spiritual progress one has to make a self-appraisal, pin down the mistake, admit it and should not repeat it. He should remember “अहम् पूर्णोस्मि अहम् शांतोस्मि”. This is निरंतर अभ्यास. निरन्तर means without अंतर or space or gap. That means constant practice. Reflection should be made for a long time without gap.
हरति अविद्या विक्षेपान् – the impression so created destroys ignorance and mental agitations. अविद्या or Ignorance is about our wrong identity and विक्षेप or agitation about disturbance in the mind.
रोगान् इव रसायनम् -just as a rasayana (rejuvenating) medicine destroys diseases all the scars of samsara vasanas are healed up and are replaced by Brahma vasanas.
Verse 38
सविकल्प निर्विकल्प समाधिः State of Realization verse 38-39
One should meditate on non-dual Brahman,
with the mind free from desires and controlling the senses

विविक्तदेशे आसीनो विरागो विजितेन्द्रियः ।
भावयेदेकमात्मानं तमनन्तमनन्यधीः ॥ ३८॥

विविक्तदेशे आसीनः विरागः विजितेन्द्रियः भावयेत् एकम् आत्मानम् तम् अनन्तम् अनन्यधीः
विविक्तदेशे-in a solitary place आसीनः-being seated विरागः-free from desires विजितेन्द्रियः-controlling the senses भावयेत्-meditate एकम्-one आत्मानम्-the self तम्-that अनन्तम्-boundless अनन्यधीः-with unswerving attention

Sitting in a solitary place, freeing the mind from desires and controlling the senses, meditate with unswerving attention on the Atman which is one without a second.
Acharya Shankara gives some more tips about Nidhidyasana

विविक्तदेशे आसीनः- Sitting in a solitary place; disciplining the body. An elaborate detail about the place and posture for meditation is given in Bhagavad Gita 13:11. here is the verse.
मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥१३:११॥

Unswerving devotion unto me by exclusive attachment, resort to solitary places, distate for the company of wordly men,

विरागः – विरागः means without raga or desire and attachment, Raga means longing, desire. The opposite of attachment is dwesha or hatred or disgust. This emotion is also under his control.
विजितेन्द्रियः विजित इंन्द्रियः one who has won over the senses or one whose mind is under his control. These two are important disciplines of the mind.
Swami Dayananda adds: The sense objects as shabda, sparsha, rupa, rasa and gandha are powerful enough even to distract a determined mind. If the mind is in the midst of these objects then it will meditate upon those objects only, rather than the intended object of meditation. So, the sense organs are to be closed and shut off to the world as much as possible. Hence the word विजितेन्द्रियः is used.
भावयेत् एकम् आत्मानम्- meditate upon the One Self without a second. भावयेत् means निधिध्यासेत् or meditate upon. One should meditate on एकम् non-dual self. What are the ‘tangibles’ for Atman meditation? This is described in verse 36 which says:
नित्यशुद्धविमुक्तः एकम् अखण्डानन्दम् अद्वयम्
सत्यम् ज्ञानम् अनन्तम् यत् परम् ब्रह्म अहम् एव तत्

नित्यशुद्धविमुक्तः eternally pure and free एकम्- non- dual अखण्डानन्दम्-seamless bliss अद्वयम्-without a second सत्यम्-truth ज्ञानम्-knowledge अनन्तम्-infinite यत् परम् ब्रह्म the supreme Brahman अहम् एव तत् – I am just that.

One should meditate that I am that supreme Brahman. I am that unchanging consciousness, which is the witness of all gross experiences of the senses during the waking state, the subtle experience of the mind during dream state, and a blissful experience characterized by the absence of subject-object relationship during the state of dreamless sleep.
Now that body, mind and the breathing are under control, next the intellect has to start functioning. The thinking or the reasoning capacity has to take over. The thinking is about myself as the pure Consciousness, which is all pervasive, eternal, blissful etc. thinking has to be done on that Sat-Chit-Ananda Swaroopa of myself, to the exclusion of everything else.

भावयेत् एकम् आत्मानम् तम् अनन्तम् अनन्यधीः -Swami Dayananda
तम् अनन्तम् अनन्यधीः – that boundless Being, with unswerving attention अनन्यधीः means अनन्य बुद्धिः. What is अनन्य? न अन्य= अनन्य that means not fixing the thought on another thing or other than Atman; unswerving attention.

Verse 39
The wise should merge the entire world of plurality into himself
and see himself as ever uncontaminated space. Jagat is falsified

आत्मन्येवाखिलं दृश्यं प्रविलाप्य धिया सुधीः ।
भावयेदेकमात्मानं निर्मलाकाशवत्सदा ॥ ३९॥
In the verse 36 and 37 अहम् सत्यम्, अहम् ज्ञानम्, अहम् ब्रह्म was emphasized. In this verse दृश्यम् the jagat is falsified. Verse 36 ,37 38 and 39 are to be understood in meditation.

आत्मनि एव अखिलम् दृश्यम् प्रविलाप्य धिया सुधीः भावयेत् एकम् आत्मानम् निर्मलाकाशवत् सदा

आत्मनि-in the Atman एव- alone अखिलम्-entire दृश्यम्-perceivable प्रविलाप्य-merging धिया-by his intelligence सुधीः-the wise man भावयेत्-should meditate एकम्-non-dual आत्मानम्-the self निर्मलाकाशवत्-like a cloudless clear sky सदा- constantly

The wise one should intelligently merge the entire world of perception in the self. He should meditate on the non-dual self, as being ever uncontaminated like space.

आत्मनि एव अखिलम् दृश्यम् प्रविलाप्य धिया सुधीः – सुधीः means the wise should intelligently merge the entire world of perception (OET, दृश्यम् ) in the self or Atman (आत्मनि एव). He has to merge the observed into the observer, the seen into the seer, as all that is observed is anatma only. I, the observer am satyam or reality. In the city of Jaipur there is Sheesh Mahal or glass palace. When you enter there, you see so many reflections of yours. When you come out of it, all refletions are resolved into you. You know, except yourself, all others are reflections, मिथ्य एव. Similarly, a wise one or sudhee, merges all multiplicity of the world (OET objects, emotion and thought), unto himself. That is the meaning of सुधीः धिया आत्मनि एव अखिलम् दृश्यम् प्रविलाप्य.
The knowledge given in this verse should be practiced in Nidhidyasana. The author is trying to demonstrate that the objective world is unreal, like the multiple projection (उपाधि) on the Atman like glass palace. The seeker is advised to merge the objective world intelligently into the self (आत्मनि एव अखिलम् दृश्यम् प्रविलाप्य). The process initiated here is seeing the world as a thought (दृष्टि- सृष्टि वाद). Swami Dayanda says: For understanding this, we need to look at the example of dream.
When I see a dream, the following aspects are observed:
1. I, the waker become the dreamer. I created the dream body and mind, sustain them and ultimately the dream resolves in me.
2. The dream has no independent existence apart from me.
3. After waking up, the dream seems to be unreal to me.
4. I, the waker is the witness of the dream world
5. I the waker do not bear the consequences of the dream. Suppose a dog bites me in the dream, it does not make my real body bleed.

After having understood this, let us extend the same example to the objective world.
1. I, the atman am the creator, sustainer and destroyer of this whole world of names and forms.
2. The objective world has no independent existence apart from me.
3. After dawn of knowledge the world of plurality seems to be unreal to me. There is no world; it was just a projection like dream.
4. I am the witness of the projection on the world
5. I, the original consciousness is not affected by the activities that happen in the world. I remain neutral.

भावयेत् एकम् आत्मानम् निर्मलाकाशवत् सदा –One should meditate on the singular self as never uncontaminated like space. I should always think of myself, the Atma, as un-ontaminated and pure, just as the space which is unaffected by the happenings within it (निर्मलाकाशवत् सदा)