Bhagavad Gita English 10

The Yoga of Divine Manifestation

Infinite Manifestations of the Unmanisfest spirit


The main topics of this chapter are:


Since the main theme of this chapter is the Lord’s glories, this chapter is called Vibhūti-yoga



Introduction and the glory of Self- knowledge



Lord’s glory in brief and the benefit of that knowledge



Virāṭ -devotees and the benefit of such a devotion



Arjuna ’s request for elaboration



Lord’s glories elaborated




VERSE – 10:01

The Lord explains the characteristics of a true teacher, true student and the glory of knowledge”’अथ दशमोऽध्यायः”’

Introduction to and the glory of self knowledge .. 1 to 3

 श्रीभगवानुवाचभूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः ।यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥१०:१॥

bhūya ēva mahābāhō śr̥ṇu mē paramaṁ vacaḥ |

yattē’haṁ prīyamāṇāya vakṣyāmi hitakāmyayā ||10:1||


भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमम् वचः ।

यत् ते अहम्  प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥ 

भूयः -Again एव -verily  महाबाहो -mightly armed (Arjuna) श्रुणु – hear मे –my परमम् –supreme वचः -word यत् -which ते -to you अहम् -I प्रीयमाणाय – to you who is delighted to hear my words  वक्ष्यामि -shall tell हितकाम्यया –for your welfare.  


Shri Bhagavan said: O Mighty armed (Arjuna) listen to more of my supreme utterance for your highest good. I will speak further to you, because you are very dear to me

श्री भगवान् उवाच –

word Bhaga means –

Who is a bhagavan?

भगवान् -The word bhaga is explained by Parashara Muni as one who is full in six opulences .

ऐश्वर्यस्य समग्रस्य वीर्यस्य यशसः श्रियः।

ज्ञान-वैराग्ययोश्चैव षण्णां भग इतीरणा॥

One who is endowed with all these six qualities is called

Bhagawan. These are  wealth (ऐश्वर्य)  perfect  strength (समग्र वीर्य), fame (यशः), beauty (श्रियः), knowledge (ज्ञानम्), and

renunciation (वैराग्यः).  

While Krishna was present on this earth, he displayed all six opulences. Now Krishna is instructing Arjuna the confidential knowledge of His opulences and His work.

भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमम् वचः

Arjuna, listen to more of my supreme words

भूयःएव -Once again. The use of these words implies that the subject has already been dealt with (in chapters 7 to 9) and the Lord wants to take up it again. In this chapter He tells

Arjuna again about his manifestations and various opulences.

श्रुणु मे परमम् वचः Listen to my supreme words or gospel of God realization.  The supreme words are the virtue, glory and truth. The Lord has broached the subject again because the truth about Bhakti or devotion is difficult to understand. 

प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया – वक्ष्यामि I shall repeat my

advice. प्रीयमाणाय who is delighted to hear it. हितकाम्यया for your welfare. This phrase shows three aspects of teaching.


  1. Good Teacher. A good teacher never gets bored to repeat the teaching and he expects what could be the doubts of the student. He has alwaysa the welfare of the student in his mind. This is suggested by the word हितकाम्यया for your good.
  2. Good student. A good student revels at the knowledge taught. This is the meaning of प्रीयमाणाय
  3. Nature of good knowledge. It is the truth that leads to God realization. This knowledge is not fleeting in nature and

continues to be  true in all periods of time. It helps in getting off the wheel of samsara and ultimately become one with God.

A seeker wanted to know the nature of good knowledge. He went to a teacher and said, “Reverend  Sir, What is the good knowledge?” The teacher took him to a pond and asked him to take a dip in the water. Even as he was under the water, the teacher pinned him down under the water for a while.  When the  seeker came up on the bank of the pond and asked him as to why he did like that. The teacher replied, “My child, what was the thought in your mind when you were under water?” The seeker said, “Sir, I just wanted to survive and breath some air”. The teacher said smilingly that similar is the case of a man who is down in the water of

samsara. A man in samsara should always think of how to get off the samsar and have some fresh air. “Just as you wanted to have fresh air to survive, you must try to get the good knowledge of truth to be free from the samsar.”


VERSE – 10:02

God has no origin. He is the creator of all.न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः ।अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणां च सर्वशः ॥१०:२॥ 

na mē viduḥ suragaṇāḥ prabhavaṁ na maharṣayaḥ |

ahamādirhi dēvānāṁ maharṣīṇāṁ ca sarvaśaḥ ||10:2||


न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवम् न महर्षयः ।

अहम् आदिः हि देवानाम् महर्षीणम् च सर्वशः ॥ 


न -not मे -me विदुः –know सुरगणाः –hosts of gods प्रभवम् –origin , the prime cause न –not महर्षयः –the great rishis अहम् –me आदि –begining  हि– indeed  देवानाम् –of the gods महर्षीणाम् of the great rishis च –and सर्वशः –in all respects

 Neither the multitude of angels (devas) nor the great sages know my uncreated nature; since I am the origin of even the devas and great rishis.

न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवम् न महर्षयः । – neither the multitude of angels nor the great sages know my orgin. The lord being orgin-less and endless no one can know his source. They do not know his ‘begining’ because he does not have one.

सुरगणाः hosts of angels. This includes 11 Rudras, 8 vasus, 12 Adityas,  Prajapati, 49 Maruts, 2 Ashwini Kumaras, and Indra.

महर्षयः the great Rushis meaning saptarshis

अहम् आदि हि देवानाम् महर्षीणाम् च सर्वशः –I am in fact the

material and instrumental cause of the  angels and great rushis. So there is no way they know my origin because they are created by me.

The stanza does not mean that the angels and rushis do not understand the self-evolved nature of God, for the very next stanza number 3, says expressly that even a mortal may

become a jivamnukta (freed while living) by that very

realization that God is beyond creation (sat) and non- creation (asat)


VERSE – 10:03

One who experiences that I am unborn, beginningless and the lord becomes free from all sins. यो मामजमनादिं च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।असंमूढः स मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥१०:३॥

yō māmajamanādiṁ ca vētti lōkamahēśvaram |

asaṁmūḍhaḥ sa martyēṣu sarvapāpaiḥ pramucyatē ||10:3||


यः माम् अजम् अनादिम् च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।

असंमूढः सः मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥ 

यः–who माम् –me अजम् -unborn अनादिम् –beginingless च -and वेत्ति –knows लोकमहेश्वरम् – the lord of the universe असंमूढः –undeluded सः –he मर्त्येषु –among men सर्वपापैः –from all sins प्रमुच्यते -liberated


One who knows me as unborn and beginingless and as the supreme Lord of the universe, is considered as undeluded (wise) and becomes free from all sins.


यो माम् अजम् अनादिम् लोकमहेश्वरम् च वेत्ति –He who knows me as unborn, endless, and as the Lord of the universe. Although the supreme spirit by his Yoga Maya or atma maya manifests as regional Gods like Indra, varuna, the triumvirate of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara for the purpose of

creation, maintenance and destruction. He also appears in physical forms as the avatars of Krishna, Rama,  or the devine

tortoise etc, but he is essentially unborn, endless, eternal. He is the supreme Lord of them all, the controller, guide,

creator, supporter, and  nourisher. What happens to one who knows this aspect of God? It is explained next. He plays the role of being born to set an example in good living and to punish bad people.

अजोपि सन्नव्ययात्मा भूतानामीश्वरोपि सन् |

प्रकृतिं स्वामधिष्ठाय संभवाम्यात्ममायया ||4:6||


असंमूढः सः मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥ 

is considered as undeluded (wise) and becomes free from all sins. He grasps the truth correctly that God has no form and attributes and his various avatars are nothing but his sport.

स सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते –He is freed from all sins. This is the benefit of realization of the true nature of God. Such a great soul unlike the material minded people does not remain engrossed in wordly enjoyments. He becomes purged of all sins from this birth as well as earlier ones. He becomes qualified to receive the Brahmajnyana. 

VERSE – 10:04

I am the creator all emotions

Lord’s glory in brief and the benefit of that knowledge  4 – 7

 बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः ।सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयमेव च ॥१०:४॥ 

buddhirjñānamasaṁmōhaḥ kṣamā satyaṁ damaḥ śamaḥ |

sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ bhavō’bhāvō bhayaṁ cābhayamēva ca ||10:4||


बुद्धिः ज्ञानम् असंमोहः क्षमा सत्यम् दमः शमः ।

सुखम् दुःखम्  भवः अभावः भयम् च अभयम् एव च ॥ 


बुद्धिः –intellect, reason ज्ञानम् –knowledge , wisdom असंमोहः –unclouded understanding क्षमा –forgiveness  सत्यम्–truthfulness दमः –control of the senses शमः –control of the mind, (calmness, tranquilty)  सुखम् –pleasure दुःखम् -pain भवः -existence or birth अभावः –non-exstence, death भयम् -fear च –and अभयम् एव च –fearlessness च –and


Intellect, wisdom, non- illusion, foregiveness, truth, control of senses, control of the mind, pleasure, pain,  birth, death, fear and also fearlessness ……


बुद्धिः ज्ञानम् असंमोहः क्षमा सत्यम् दमः शमः ।


  1. बुद्धिः – The function of the mind of judging what is right and what is wrong, what is to be accepted and rejected, what is good and evil is called Buddhi or reasoning.
  2. ज्ञानम् –knowledge. It covers wordly knowledge as well as the metaphysical knowledge about the reality of God. The latter includes knowledge about jiva, jagat and Ishwara
  3. असंमोहः -Unclouded understanding. Wordly attractions which instantly satiate, and appear everlasting and delightful to a person are indeed fleeting and non-fulfilling. The person who refuses to be seduced by them is called ‘Asammohah’. 
  4. क्षमा –foregiveness, the quality of forebearence. Such a person does not retaliate to a tormentator who causes direct or indirect harm to him. Such offenses include, evil intentions, usurping property, using harsh or abusive words, indulging in columny or malicious gossip. Clemency is not a sign of weakness; it is the strength of the strong and virtue of the weak.

If you forgive others, your father in heaven will also foregive you (Mathew 6.14) -Yogananda

  1. सत्यम् –Truthfullness. It is the unity of mind, speech and action. Truth is representing what has been observed, heard or experienced as it is. Satya is Dharma, satya is atma, and satya is Brahman. 
  2. दमः –Dama is restraining the sense organs to the

wayward attractions of sense objects. In otherwords, dama is  इन्द्रिय निग्रह (indriya nigraha). It is compared to a horse rider who holds his vagabond horse in leash and turns it to gainful use.

  1. शमः –It is the control or subdual of mind from going to enjoyment of sense objects. It is usually compared to a mohout who controls an elephant in ‘Mast’ with the help of the prod.


सुखम् दुःखम्  भवः अभावः भयम् च अभयम् एव च ॥ 

  1. सुखम् –Sukha or joy denotes happiness obtained by

contact with agreeable objecrs and circumsatances and withdrawl of disagreeable ones.  

  1. दुःखम् –dukha or sarrow denotes suffering caused by contact with disagreeable objects and circumstances as also withdrawl of agreeable ones. In Vedanta dukha is classified under three headings. These are:

 आधिभौतिक –that is caused through agency of physical body of men, beasts, insects etc.

आधिदैविक –Act of God such as natural calamities, such as draught, cloud-burst, earthquake, lightning etc.

आध्यात्मिक –caused by distempter of the body, mind and senses.

  1. भाव– creation of universe cosnsisting entire animate and inanimate beings.
  2. अभावः – disappearance or dissolution of creation.
  3. भयम् -Agitation or perturbation of mind in view of real or imaginary impending calamity
  4. अभयम् –Total absence of fear cused by total faith in safety, provided by God.

God is the cerator of all the above 13 emotions.


VERSE – 10:05

Another list of emotions created by Godअहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशोऽयशः ।भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥१०:५॥ 

ahiṁsā samatā tuṣṭistapō dānaṁ yaśō’yaśaḥ |

bhavanti bhāvā bhūtānāṁ matta ēva pr̥thagvidhāḥ ||10:5||


अहिंसा समता तुष्टिः तपः दानम्  यशः अयशः ।

भवन्ति भावा भूतानाम् मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥ 


अहिंसा –non-injury समता –equanimity तुष्टिः –contentment तपः –austerity, self-descipline दानम् -charity यशः –fame अयशः–infamy  भवन्ति –constitute भावाः –qualities, traits भूतानाम् –in creatures मत्तः –from me एव –only पृथग्विधाः –of different kinds


Non-injury, equanimity, contentment, self-descipline,

charity, fame, infamy, these diverse conditions of beings spring forth from me alone as modifications of my nature.


  1. अहिंसा –non-injury is non-infliction of suffering in any form in any beings by thought, word and deed.
  2. समता -equanimity denotes the mind being ever free from partiality and prejudice.
  3. तुष्टिः –Contentment is the attitude of mind when one remains serene; without any complaint and It specially connotes happiness with status quo situation.
  4. तपः – self-descipline. It is the character of a man who sticks to his spiritual activities and regular habits. Literally it means generation of heat or energy. It is always used in a symbolic manner referring to the spiritual practice and its

effect, especially the roasting of karmic seeds, the burning up of karma.

  1. दानम् –charity. It involves sharing your wealth, knowledge, skill etc., with the needy out of love and no


  1. यशः – fame. This comes from your good deeds, accomplishments or power
  2. अयशः –infamy, opposite of yasha.

All these traits and indeed all the manifold conditions of

beings (भवन्ति भावाः भूतानाम् ) arise from me (मत्तः एव पृथग्विधाः).


VERSE – 10:06

The saptarshis and Sanakadi Rushis are born of my thoughtमहर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा ।मद्भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः ॥१०:६॥ 

maharṣayaḥ sapta pūrvē catvārō manavastathā |

madbhāvā mānasā jātā yēṣāṁ lōka imāḥ prajāḥ ||10:6||



महर्षयः सप्तः पूर्वे चत्वारः मनवः तथा ।

मद्भावाः मानसाः जाताः येषाम् लकॆ इमाः प्रजाः ॥ 


महर्षयः –the great Rishis सप्तः –seven in number पूर्वे –ancient चत्वारः –the four मनवः -Manus तथा –as also मद्भावाः–possesseed of power like me मानसाः –from mind जाताः –born येषाम्–from whom लोके –in the world इमाः -these प्रजाः –creatures have descended.


The seven great rishis, the ancient four (sons of Brahma), and the (fourteen) Manus are also modification of my nature, born of my thought, and endowed with creative power like mine. From these progenitors came all the living creatures on the earth.


महर्षयः सप्तः पूर्वे चत्वारः मनवः तथा ।

-The great seven Rushis, and the fourteen Manus.

The seven great rishis.The saptarshis mentioned here are the maharshis or the great Rushis. They are the embodiments of the lord born out of his thought. They were born in the first Manvantara. The Vedas were revealed first to them. Their names are:  1. Marichi, 2. Angira,3.  Atri, 4. Pulastya,

  1. Pulaha, 6. Kratu, and 7. Vasishtha.

These saptarshis are not the same as seven seers of the present Vaivaswata Manvntara Viz. Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha and Kashyapa. The saptarishis change in every Manvantara or the tenure of office of Manus.

चत्वारः पूर्वे –the primeval four mind-born sons of Brahma or Prajapati or the creator. These are Sanaka, Sanananda, Sanatana, and Sanat Kumara. They are the children of Prajapati conceived in his mind by extreme tapas. They are the first born differentiation of spirit from which creation evolved. They were born earlier to Maharshis mentined above.

मनवः तथा –Fourteen Manus hold office and apprear in

succession. The tenure of office of each Manu is called

Manvantara. A Manvantara consists of seventy-one chaturyugas. Each Chatruyuga has four yugas viz. Satyayuga,

Treta yuga, Dwapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. Reckoned in human years, a Manvantara extends 306 million years.


मद्भावाः मानसाः जाताः येषाम् लोके इमाः प्रजाः – From these

progenitors came all the living creatures on the earth. मद्भावाः possessed of power like me.  मानसाः जाताः conceived in my mind येषाम् from these progenitors लोके इमाः प्रजाः all these creatures are descended in the world.


VERSE – 10:07

One who understands Gods yoga and vibhuti gets freed from bondage of lifeएतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।सोऽविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः ॥१०:७॥ 

ētāṁ vibhūtiṁ yōgaṁ ca mama yō vētti tattvataḥ |

sō’vikampēna yōgēna yujyatē nātra saṁśayaḥ ||10:7||


एताम् विभूतिम् योगम् च मम यः वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।

सः अविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते न अत्र  संशयः ॥


एताम् –these विभूतिम् –prolific manifestations योगम् –supernatural power च -and मम -mine यः -who वेत्ति –knows तत्त्वतः –in essence सः -he अविकम्पेन –unshakable योगेन –union with me युज्यते –gets established न –not अत्र –here संशयः -doubt


He, who understands my prolific manifestations and the creative, sustaining and dissolving power of my divine yoga is unshakably united to me in devotion. This is beyond doubt.


There are two preconditions to be permanently united with God. These are: 

  1. एताम् विभूतिम् योगम् च मम यः वेत्ति तत्त्वतः –One who

realizes my vibhuti and yoga. एताम् The word etam meaning these, refers to description of evolution of the unverse

described in the previous three verses. He said that the countless universes, endless procession of angels, manus,

rishis, human beings, lower beings and all living and non-living objects are born out of me.

विभूति The word vibhuti means prolific manifestations or

divine glory. In the preceeding three verses, the Lord has explained that he is the origin and end of the entire cosmos, the good and bad traits. The abstract ideas such as  sapidity in water; burning quality of the fire etc. are his vibhuti.  (Ch. 07: 08), “ I am the vedic ritual, I am the sacrifice (ch. 9:16).

All the inherent qualities, attributes of the objects and beings are the vibhuti of God. Whatever object in the world seems to be endowed with special inharent power is the glory or vibhutiof God.

यॊगम् : yogam stands for the transcendent and marvellous power of God, the secret of which is not known either to the gods or the great sages (chapter 10: 02).


न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः । अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणां च सर्वशः ॥१०:२॥Neither the multitude of angels (devas) nor the great sages know my uncreated nature; since I am the origin of even the devas and great rishis. God is the instrumental and material cause of jagat or cosmos. But he always remains apart from his creations as mentioned in Gita 09:04 which says, “Neither I exist in them, nor they in me”. He is the supreme lord of all the worlds, good hearted friend of all, enjoyer of the sacrifices, sustainer of all and destroyerof all. He holds the entire universe by a fraction of his being (10:42). Still he remains aloof from all actions, and  transformations as said in 9:5. This is his wonderful divine power of yoga.

यः वेत्ति तत्त्वतः –One who knows my essential nature, one who understands the vibhuti and yoga of the Lord.


सः अविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते न अत्र  संशयः

He gets established in me with unflinching faith. This is the exclusive devotion to God or the undivided devotion

mentioned in 14:26 quoted below:


मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते।  

स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥१४:२६॥

He who constantly serves me with undeviating love, through the yoga of exclusive devotion, transcends the three gunas and qualifies to become Brahman.


न अत्र संशयः –Arjiuna there is no doubt in it.


VERSE – 10:08

I create the universe and I stay in the heart of every being; knowing this the wise worship me 

Virāṭ -devotees and the benefit of such a devotion..8 to 11

अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्तते ।इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसमन्विताः ॥१०:८॥

ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavō mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartatē |

iti matvā bhajantē māṁ budhā bhāvasamanvitāḥ ||10:8||


अहम् सर्वस्य प्रभवः मत्तः सर्वम् प्रवर्तते ।

इति मत्वा भजन्ते माम् बुधाः भावसमन्विताः ॥ 


अहं –me सर्वस्य –of all प्रभवः –the source मत्तः –because of me सर्वम् –all प्रवर्तते –moves इति –thus मत्वा –having understood भजन्ते –worship माम् – me बुधाः –the wise भावसमन्विताः –full of devotion


I am the source of everything; all creation emerges from me. Knowing thus, the wise full of devotion constantly worship me.

हम् सर्वस्य प्रभवः मत्तः सर्वम् प्रवर्तते –I am the source of everything; all creations emerges from me. Just as the spider weaves a web around it out of its own body part and ultimately withdraws the entire web into itself, God created the cosmos out of his own will and ultimately withdraws everything unto himself.  So God is the material and instrumental cause of the creation. Creation is the power of God’s Yoga. It is through his ruling that the sun, moon, the planets are revolving in their respective course, the time rolls on, the seasons occur, He is the, creator, destroyer and director of entire universe.

इति मत्वा भजन्ते माम् बुधाः भावसमन्विताः  

 बुधाः –are the enlightened devotees who are brimming with exclusive love for God, have full faith in him and recognize his essential nature, his virtues and glories. भावसमन्विताः are the devotees to whom God is the beloved. They are ever focussed on the lord, his essential nature, power and glories.  भावः here means  faith, love. They love not only God but all the creations of God. In Bhagavata Krishna explains this eloberately. Iam established as my own self in the heart of every being. So, you should not only worshipme in the temple as an idol but also one who is abding in the heart of every one. This is the meaning of भावसमन्विताः 

VERSE – 10:09

My devotees are ever contented speaking about my yoga and vibhuti. Thye ae ever happyमच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥१०:९॥

maccittā madgataprāṇā bōdhayantaḥ parasparam |

kathayantaśca māṁ nityaṁ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca ||10:9||


मच्चित्ताः मद्गतप्राणाः बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।

कथयन्तः च माम् नित्यम् तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥ 


मच्चित्ताः –with their minds wholly resting in me मद्गतप्राणाः –with their life surrendered to me बोधयन्तः –enlightening परस्परम् –mutually कथयन्तः –speaking about the glories and nature of God च –and माम् –me नित्यम् –ever तुष्यन्ति –are contended  च –and रमन्ति -delighted च –and


 My devotees ever remain delighted and joyful with their minds wholly resting in me, and their lives surrendered to me. They always enlighten one another by talking about my glories and greatness. 

मच्चित्ताः मद्गतप्राणाः बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।

मच्चित्ताः – The devotees having their mind wholly upon me. How do they fix their mind on God? They have realized that God is supreme lover and great friend; he is their highest goal and ever remains with their mind rested in God. They have no attraction for material enjoyments, and they don’t want anything but God. Even as they go about in their regular activities in the world, they have at the back of their mind the memory of God. मद्गतप्राणाः one who has surrendered his life to God.’ How to surrender to God? This phrase has been used with reference to one who lives and breathes solely for me, one who always thinks of me and speaks about me. The mind, intellect, senses of ordinary people is always filled with the thought of worldly matters. The mind of the enlightened soul is ever stationed in the glory and love of God. They know that the worldly experiences are fleeting whereas the experience of God is permanent. A man who has eaten garlic smells of garlic as soon as he opens his mouth. If you cut a fully ripe fruit of nectarine it tastes sweet which ever place you cut it.  Similarly the wise man always beams with knowledge about God.

कथयन्तः च माम् नित्यम् तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥  They always enlighten each other by speaking about my name, glory and sport.  They repeat my actions as parayana or singing of song, sermons, cinemas, dramas, skits etc., and hearing discourses. Such activities keep on going continuously since the devotees are not interested in anything else.

तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च – duly hearing, chanting the names,

virtues, glories and mysteries of the Lord , the devotees ever visualizing as being present before him constantly enjoy his presence. So they are always contented, and joyful. They are not interested in munane gossip and affairs.


VERSE – 10:10

For those who are ever steadfast in praying to me with love, I bless them with buddhiyoga by which they attain me. तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्वकम् ।ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते ॥१०:१०॥

tēṣāṁ satatayuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ prītipūrvakam |

dadāmi buddhiyōgaṁ taṁ yēna māmupayānti tē ||10:10||


तेषाम् सततयुक्तानाम् भजताम् प्रीतिपूर्वकम् ।

ददामि बुद्धियोम् तम्  येन माम् उपयांति ते ॥ 

तेषाम् –to them सततयुक्तानाम् –ever steadfast भजताम् –worshipping me प्रीतिपूर्वकम् –with love ददामि –I give बुद्धियोगम् –yoga of discrimination तम् –that येन –by which माम् –to me उपयान्ति –come ते -they


To those who are ever attached to me and who worship me with love, I impart that discriminative wisdom (Buddhi Yoga, Yoga of wisdom) by which, they come to me.  

तेषाम् सततयुक्तानाम् भजताम् प्रीतिपूर्वकम् ।

they, who are ever steadfast praying me with love. This refers to the devotees who are constantly engaged in the worship of the Lord as mentioned in the previous verse (मच्चित्ताः मद्गतप्राणाः) Devotees without selfish motive, Nishkama

ananya prema bhakti. सततयुक्तानाम् ever united with me in love. Just as the river continuously flow toward the sea, the devotee always thinks of God even while he is engaed in his personal activities.

ददामि बुद्धियोगम् तम् येन माम् उपयान्ति ते –I shall bestow upon them the yoga of wisdom by which they can easily attain me; that means they get to realize me.

बुद्धियोग indicates the truth relating to the absolute, formless divinity and also his qualified aspect with or without form; (निराकार निर्गुण, or साकार सगुण) the transcendental or immanent nature of God. This has been named as Jnyana coupled with vijnyana   ज्ञान विज्ञान योग.

Buddhi yoga is the best reward one may expect from God.

The method of God realization has been described here. The Lord assures that he will confer the technique of realization of self with form or without form. The prerequisite is complete devotion with love. (सततयुक्तानाम् भजताम् प्रीतिपूर्वकम्)


It is said in Mahabharata that if the devatas want to destroy a man, they make his mind to go wayward. By making mistakes he destroys himself. Earler the lord had advised बुद्धौ शरणमन्विछ which means surrender unto me by buddhi. In Gayatri mantra, which is supposed to be the greatest prayer, the devotee prays, “धीयोयोनः प्रचोदयात् “. Shankaracharya says, “मॊक्षकारण सामग्र्याम् भक्तिरेव गरीयसे”  which means among the peripherials for liberation, bhakti is the prime one.

VERSE – 10:11

I dwell in the heart of devotees and remove their ignorance by a  spark of wisdomतेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजं तमः ।नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थो ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥१०:११॥

tēṣāmēvānukampārthamahamajñānajaṁ tamaḥ |

nāśayāmyātmabhāvasthō jñānadīpēna bhāsvatā ||10:11||


तेषाम् एव अनुकम्पार्थम् अहम् अज्ञानजम्  तमः ।

नाशयामि आत्मभावस्थः ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥ 


तेषाम् –for them एव -just अनुकम्पार्थम् –out of compassion अहम् –I अज्ञानजम् –born of ignorance तमः -darkness नाशयामि –I destroy आत्मभावस्थः –dwelling within their heart ज्ञानदीपेन –by the lamp of  knowledge भास्वता –luminous


Out of sheer compassion for them, I dwelling within their heart, ignite in them the radiant knowledge of wisdom which banishes the darkness of ignorance.


तेषाम् एव अनुकम्पार्थम् अहम् अज्ञानजम्  तमः नाशयामि

Out of mercy for those who are ever steadfast in devotion to me, I basnish their dark ignorance. The veiling power of

ignorance exists in every one by birth due to the vasanas. An

account of this ignorance we fail to recognize the virtues,

glory and character of God.

तेषाम् means those तेषाम् सततयुक्तानाम् भजताम् प्रीतिपूर्वकम् those who are ever in communion with me by praying to me with love and devotion, I dispel their darkness of ignorance.

नाशयामि आत्मभावस्थः ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥ 

I dwell in their heart, ignite the lamp of knowledge and dispel thir ignorance.

आत्मभावस्थः –the indweller in all beings. He constantly dwells in the heart meaning mind of every one as their inner

Controller. Since God resides in our heart, it is his

Responsibility to take care of us योग क्षेम. The Lord explains in this verse how he is going to redeem his devotee. It is his responsibility to rescue a devotee. If a child is seen in a worn out and dirty cloathes is it not a shame to its parents?

When God stays in our mind, it becomes pure and sacred.

ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता  -by the illuminating the bright lamp of knowledge. The Lord lits the lamp of knowledge. When the darkness is removed, the self stands revealed. In the previous verse he says ददामि बुद्धियोगम् – I bestow yoga of discretion and discrimination. He graces jnyana and vijnyana so that one is able to know well the formless divinity and his grandeur and glory.  One is also able to know the qualified aspect of God with or without form; his sports, mysteries, glories, and greatness. Removal of ignorance, understanding the true nature of God is followed by God realization.

In spiritual science a light is representative of knowledge. We need light in the outside world as well as in our intellect. That is why the Rushis of Upanishad prayed,

ॐ असतो मा सद्गमय।

तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय।

मृत्योर्मामृतं गमय ॥

ॐ शान्ति शान्ति शान्तिः ॥

– बृहदारण्यकोपनिषद् 1.3.28


VERSE – 10:12

Arjuna adulates God

Arjuna ’s request for elaboration ……………….. 12 to 18

अर्जुन उवाचपरं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान् ।पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम् ॥१०:१२॥

paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān |

puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyamādidēvamajaṁ vibhum ||10:12||


परम् ब्रह्म परम् धाम पवित्रम् परमम् भवान् ।

पुरषम्  शाश्वतम् दिव्यम् आदिदेवम् अजम्  विभुम् ॥ 


परम् transcendental ब्रह्म -Brahman परम् –supreme धाम –abode पवित्रम् –purifier परमम् –supreme भवान् -you पुरुषम् -purusha शाश्वतम् -eternal दिव्यम् -divine आदिदेवम् -primeval deity अजम् –unborn विभुम् –omnipresent, all-pervading


Arjuna said:

You are the transcendental Brahman; supreme abode,

 supreme purifier, eternal and divine purusha; the orginal deity, uncaused, and omnipresent…..


परम् ब्रह्म परम् धाम पवित्रम् परमम् भवान् ।

You are the transcendental Brahman; supreme abode,

 supreme purifier, eternal.

परम् ब्रह्म Often the Upanishads speak of higher and lower Brahman refering to unmanifest and manifest aspects of Brahman. Arjuna says here O Krishna! You are the absolute transcedental spirit. परा अपरा प्रकृति

परम् धाम  -Supreme abode or shelter. All things exist in Brahman.  So he is the supreme shelter. However presently we are thinking of much lower existence परा प्रकृति. Gita tells here that we can indeed have the experience of living in the absolute consciousness.

परमम् पवित्रम्  – supreme purifier. There are many purifiers, the air purifier, water purifier, sacred places, rivers etc.

Arjuna says, you are “ The supreme purifier”. All these purifiers wash our dirt but they cannot clean our ajnyana or ignorance or sin. The indweller Lord purifies the sins which is the cause of ignorance and purifes the ignorance which is the cause of sins.

पवित्राणां पवित्रं यो मन्गलानां च मन्गलम्  He is the purifier of the purifiers

भवान्  पुरुषम्  -Eternal divine spirit. He is not destroyed even if the body is dead.

शाश्वतम्   -One who remains the same in all the periods of time-present, past and future.

दिव्यम्  – Divine spirit.

आदिदेवम्  -The Primal God, not existing in time or space. The holy ones, shining celestials having spiritual powers can be rightly called gods, but only Brahman is the Prime God. The word suggests that there was nothing earlier-Adi daivam

अजम् –Aja means without birth, unborn. God never came into being, but has been for ever.

विभुम् –All –pervading, Omnipresent. There s no place where there is no God.


VERSE – 10:13

Arjuna adulates God – continuedआहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा ।असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे ॥१०:१३॥ 

āhustvāmr̥ṣayaḥ sarvē dēvarṣirnāradastathā |

asitō dēvalō vyāsaḥ svayaṁ caiva bravīṣi mē ||10:13||


आहुः त्वाम् ऋषयः सर्वे देवर्षिः नारदः तथा ।

असितः देवलः व्यासः स्वयम् च एव  ब्रवीषि मे ॥ 

आहुः –they declared त्वाम् -you ऋषयः –the rushis सर्वे -all देवर्षिः –Deva Rishis  नारदः -Narada तथा –as also असितः -Asita देवलः –Devala व्यासः –Vyasa स्वयम् –yourself च –and एव -also ब्रवीषि –are telling मे -me


Likewise speak all the great sages, the celestial Narada,

Asita, Devala, and Vyasa; and yourself too have proclaimed this to me.


आहुः त्वाम् ऋषयः सर्वे देवर्षिः नारदः तथा ।

All the sages who have themselves subjectively realised your true nature vouch for it. A spiritual seeker accepts the words of the Gurus and great sages and Brahman-knowers as true.

देवर्षिः नारदः असितः देवलः व्यासः –All these great Rushis know the real truth of God and are great lovers and devotees of God and possessed of supreme wisdom.

तथा स्वयम् च एव ब्रवीषि मे –Krishna has referred to his infinite glory  in ch 4:6 to 9; ch. 5 :29; ch. 7: 7 to 12; ch. 9: 4 to 11; Ch. 10: 2,3, and 8.


VERSE – 10:14

 Arjuna extols the prowess and opulence of God.सर्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव ।न हि ते भगवन्व्यक्तिं विदुर्देवा न दानवाः ॥१०:१४॥ 

sarvamētadr̥taṁ manyē yanmāṁ vadasi kēśava |

na hi tē bhagavanvyaktiṁ vidurdēvā na dānavāḥ ||10:14||


सर्वम् ऎतत्  ऋतम्  मन्ये यत् माम् वदसि केशव ।

न हि ते भगवन् व्यक्तिम् विदुः देवाः न दानवाः ॥ 


सर्वम् –all एतत् -this ऋतम् -true मन्ये –I believe यत् –which माम् –to me वदसि –(you) say केशव –Keshava न -not हि –verily ते -your भगवन् –blessed Lord व्यक्तिम् –manifestation विदुः –know देवाः –the gods न -nor दानवाः –demons


O Keshava! (Krishna), I consider as eternal truth all you have revealed to me. Blessed Lord! Neither the devas (gods) nor the danavas (demons) know your infinite modes of manifestations.


सर्वम् ऎतत्  ऋतम्  मन्ये यत् माम् वदसि केशव ।

I considered all that you have revealed to me as true and nothing but true.

What has the Lord revealed to Arjuna? From chapter 7 upto the verse 11 of the present 10th chapter the Lord speaks about his vibhuti and yoga (manifestations and glory). “Krishna, I believe this to be true.”

केशव –Keshava This is a compound word consisting of  क्, अ and ईश. ‘ka’ represents Brahma, the creator, ‘a’ signifies Vishnu, the protector and ‘Isha’indicates ‘Shiva’, the creative destroyer of the universe. So the word suggests the three functional aspects of the lord स्रष्टि स्थिति लय


न हि ते भगवन् व्यक्तिम् विदुः देवाः न दानवाः ॥ 

भगवान् -The word bhaga is explained by Parashara Muni as one who is complete with six opulences . These are  wealth (समग्र ऐश्वर्य)  perfect  strength (वीर्यः), fame (यशः), beauty (श्रियः), knowledge (ज्ञानम्), and renunciation (वैराग्यम्).  While Krishna was present on this earth, he displayed all six opulences. Now Krishna is instructing Arjuna the confidential knowledge of His opulences and His work.

ऐश्वर्यस्य समग्रस्य वीर्यस्य यशसः श्रियः।

ज्ञान -वैराग्ययोश्चैव षण्णां भग इतीरणा॥

One who is endowed with all these six qualities is called Bhagawan.

Entire glory, virtue, fame, wisdom and total dispassion –these six are collectively known as ‘Bhaga.” At another place ‘Bhaga” is described as one who is capable of creation, sustainance and dissolution and knows vidya and avidya. By addressing Krishna as Bhagawan, Arjuna says, “O Lord, you are the repository of all glory and omniscience”.

देवाः न दानवाः विदुः ते व्यक्तिम् –neither the gods nor the demons know your infinite modes of appearences.


VERSE – 10:15

Only you are aware of your vibhuti and yogaस्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम ।भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥१०:१५॥ 

svayamēvātmanātmānaṁ vēttha tvaṁ puruṣōttama |

bhūtabhāvana bhūtēśa dēvadēva jagatpatē ||10:15||


स्वयम् ऎव आत्मना आत्मानम्  वेत्थ त्वम् पुरुषोत्तम ।

भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥ 

स्वयम् -yourself एव -only  आत्मना –by yourself आत्मानम् –yourself वेत्थ –understand त्वम् –you पुरुषोत्तम –O supreme Purusha भूतभावन –O source of all beings भूतेश –O Lord of beings देवदेव –O God of Gods जगत्पते –O Lord of the universe


O Supreme Purusha! O Origin of beings, O Lord of the

beings, O God of gods, O Sustainer of the universe! Verily you alone know yourself by yourself.


भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥ 

Arjuna has used here four vocatives (संबोधन विभक्ति) to

describe the virtues, glory, sports, greatness, in short vibhuti and yoga of Krishna. You are the creator (भूतभावन), sustainer (भूतेश,  जगत्पते) and destructor.

भूतभावन creator the father of all beings. The good, bad, ugly, beautiful, the wise, dullards, the criminals, etc. No one is beyond his love. Just as the light rays arise from the sun, the creation has arisen from the Lord.

भूतेश the Lord of all beings. He rules over his kngdom. none of the living or non-living can bypass his laws. In the world, even a criminal can escape punishment by appointing a good advocate. But in the kingdom of the Lord, this is not possible. We have to undergo the punishment and reward given by our karmas.

देवदेव the Lord of Lords. He is superior to all other deities. There are many religions and many gods. But there is only one God. He is the Lord of Lords. Ther are many varieties and number of electric bulbs. But the power behind them is only one.

जगत्पते the Lord of universe. He is not only the lord of living beings, but the entire cosmos. The celestial orbs like sun and moon obey him.

स्वयम् ऎव आत्मना आत्मानम्  वेत्थ

You alone know by yourself.  Nobody knows your mystery, neither the Gods nor the demons. Your virtues, sports, vibhuti and yoga is not understood by any one. The wise say, “ I do not know him. He is beyond my knowledge”, the ignorant claims “ I know him because he is ignorant”.  The self is not like a material knowledge which can be understood by evidence and inference. The self is beyond the limit of sense organs. God is the very embodiment of knowledge. There is no distinction of the knower, knowledge, and the object of knowledge. Therefore Arjuna says, “ you yourself know yourself by yourself” ( स्वयम् एव आत्मना आत्मानम् वेत्थ).

Therefore Krishna says:

न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः । अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणां च सर्वशः ॥१०:२॥ 

VERSE – 10:16

Arjuna wants to know the glory and mysteries of the Lord in its entirityवक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेण दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि ॥१०:१६॥ 

vaktumarhasyaśēṣēṇa divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ |

yābhirvibhūtibhirlōkānimāṁstvaṁ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi ||10:16||


वक्तुम् अर्हसि अशेषेण दिव्या आत्मविभूतयः ।

याभिः विभूतिभिः लोकान् इमान् त्वम् व्याप्य तिष्ठसि ॥ 


वक्तुम् –to tell अर्हसि –capable of अशेषेण –without leaving

anything in its entirity दिव्या –divine हि –indeed आत्मविभूतयः –your self glories याभिः –by which विभूतिभिः –by your glories लोकान् –worlds इमान् –these त्वम् –you व्याप्य –having pervaded तिष्ठसि –exist

Threfore, You alone are able to fully describe  your divine self-manifestations by which you exist pervading all the universes.

वक्तुम् अर्हसि अशेषेण दिव्या आत्मविभूतयः ।

Arjuna wants to understand all the enigmas and mysteries of the Lord of creatures in its entirity. What a difficult question? Since it is not possible to see God, we can only know him by his vibhuti (sovereign power, splendour). The lord alone is capable of explaining it because “He alone knows Himself by Himself”. No one else knows the full extent of his manifestations and glories and therefore he alone is capable of explaining it as well.

दिव्या हि आत्मविभूतयः –your divine mysteries. विभूति means splendour, super-human power. This covers all those objects or beings in the unverse possessed of lustre, strength, learning, glory, virtue and power. तेज बल, विद्या ऐश्वर्य, गुण शक्ति etc.

It is not possibe to see God. So, Arjuna requests Krishna to speak about his mystery and grandeur so that he can indirectly know God.


याभिः र्विभूतिभिः इमान् लोकान् व्याप्य तिष्ठसि –you abide in the whole cosmos by your glories and manifestations. Arjuna is not satisfied with the glories of the lord in the mortal world. He wants to know his glories relating to all other worlds. Therfore he uses the word इमान् लोकान् – these worlds.


VERSE – 10:17

O Krishna, how can I know you in meditation?कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन् ।केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया ॥१०:१७॥ 

kathaṁ vidyāmahaṁ yōgiṁstvāṁ sadā paricintayan |

kēṣu kēṣu ca bhāvēṣu cintyō’si bhagavanmayā ||10:17||


कथम्  विद्याम् अहम्  योगिन् त्वाम् सदा परिचिन्तयन् ।

केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्यः असि  भगवन् मया ॥  


कथम् –how विद्याम् –shall  know अहम् –I योगिन् –O Yogin त्वाम् –you सदा –always परिचिन्तयन् –contemplating केषु केषु –in whatever च –and भावेषु –aspects चिन्त्यः –to be thought of असि –you are भगवन् –O blessed Lord मया –by me


O Master of Yoga, through what method of continuous meditation may I know you? And in what particular forms or aspects, O lord are you to be meditated upon by me?


Arjuna has put two questions to Krishna.

  1. How can I constantly remember you with love and faith and know your glories?
  2. What are your forms and aspects on which I may focus my mind in meditation?

Since God is both absolute and manifest, Arjuna wants to know whether he should pray to God in his cosmic-consciousness or as a personal God having attributes. “I want to know if I shoud pray to you in your formless aspect (निर्गुण) or with forms (सगुण)” querries Arjuna.

Krishna has already spoken about his vibhuti in 7th and 9th chapters. Arjuna has tasted vibrant vibhuti and he wants more. He says in the next verse, I long to hear more of your opulence. तृप्तिः हि श्र्ण्वतः न अस्ति मे अमृतम्


VERSE – 10:18

Please tell me more of your yoga and vibhutiविस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं च जनार्दन ।भूयः कथय तृप्तिर्हि श्र्ण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम् ॥१०:१८॥ 

vistarēṇātmanō yōgaṁ vibhūtiṁ ca janārdana |

bhūyaḥ kathaya tr̥ptirhi śrṇvatō nāsti mē’mr̥tam ||10:18||


विस्तरेण आत्मनः योगम्  विभूतिम् च जनार्दन ।

भूयः कथय तृप्तिः हि श्र्ण्वतः न अस्ति मे अमृतम् ॥ 


विस्तरेण –in detail आत्मनः –your योगम् –yoga विभूतिम् -glory च –and जनार्दन –O janardhana भूयः -again कथय –tell me तृप्तिः – contentment हि -for श्र्ण्वतः –of hearing न –not अस्ति –is मे –to me अमृतम् -nectar


O Janardana (Krishna)! Tell me again in detail your power of Yoga and Vibhuti , for I am never satisfied in hearing your nectar-like speech.


विस्तरेण आत्मनः योगम्  विभूतिम् च जनार्दन ।

जनार्दन –O janardhana. Arjuna calls Krshna as Janardana. जनैः आद्यते इति जनार्दन. One who is approached for fulfilment of material and spiritual desires. Arjuna implies that his desired object also will be fulfilled by Krishna.

आत्मनः योगम् च विभूतिम् –your Yoga and Vibhuti.

Yoga is the divine potency of God by which he manifests himself in the form of universe and its variety of living and non-living contents. The Lord creates the universe, sustains it and dissolves it by his power of Yoga. Neither the Gods nor the demons know the full extent of his power of yoga. God is the instrumental and material cause of jagat or cosmos. But he always remains apart from his creations as mentioned in Gita 7:12 which says, “Neither I exist in them, nor they in me”. He is the supreme lord of all the worlds, disinterested friend of all, enjoyer of the sacrifices, sustainer of all and destroyer of all. He holds the entire universe by a fraction of his being (10:42). Still he remains aloof from all actions, and  transformations as said in 9:5. This is his wonderful divine power of yoga.

Vibhuti or form represents the manifestations caused by the power of Yoga. It also includes his opulence,  glories , sports, unexplained power, inherent quality and attributes of objects and natural phenomenon. For example, the sapidity of water,  the sweetness of sugar are the vibhuti of the Lord.


भूयः कथय तृप्तिः हि श्र्ण्वतः न अस्ति मे अमृतम् ॥ 

भूयः कथय –again tell me, explain to me. The Lord has already explained these two words in chapter 7 and 9 but still Arjuna wants to listen to it. So he says please repeat. विस्तरेण –in detail

तृप्तिः हि श्र्ण्वतः न अस्ति मे अमृतम् –I never get satisfied by hearing your nectar-like words. This is a figurative speech. Arjuna says that he finds such an extreme joy by listening to the sweet words of the Lord that he never gets wearied and tired. The more he drinks the nectar the more thirsty he

becomes. So Krishna, please repeat your teachings.

Once jaganmata (madam universe) requested goddess

Saraswati to play Vina (a musical instrument) in her court. She rendered a few songs so wll, that jaganmata cried out, “hurray”. The Goddess Saraswati, immediately stopped

singing and playing Vina. The jaganmata asked, “Why did you stop”. The Goddess replied, “your voice was so sweet and nectar like that my Vina was put to shame”.


VERSE – 10:19

 My glory is limitless. So, I will list out only some prominent of them.

Lord’s glories elaborated ………………19 to 42


The Blessed Lord said

हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ नास्त्यन्तो विस्तरस्य मे ॥१०:१९॥ 

hanta tē kathayiṣyāmi divyā hyātmavibhūtayaḥ |

prādhānyataḥ kuruśrēṣṭha nāstyantō vistarasya mē ||10:19||


हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्याः हि आत्मविभूतयः ।

प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ न अस्ति अन्तः विस्तरस्य मे ॥ 


हन्तः –now ते –you कथयिष्यामि –I shall tell दिव्याः –devine हि -indeed आत्मविभूतयः –my own glories प्राधान्यतः –outstanding ones कुरुश्रेष्ठ –O the best of Kurus न –not अस्ति –is there अन्तः –the end विस्तरस्य – of the extend मे-of me


The Blessed Lord said:

Very well, O the best of Kurus (Arjuna) I will tell you my prominent divine glories for there is no limit to my manifestations.


हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्याः हि आत्मविभूतयः  Well I will now tell you my prominent manifestations because there is no limit to my grandeur.

दिव्याः आत्मविभूतयः –divine manifestations. The whole

universe is a manifestation of God  and so all its contents are also his manifestations. But here the Lords sets out to list

only the prominent ones (प्राधान्यतः कथयिष्यामि) for there is no end to his  glories. Just as the lord has no beginning or end, his glories also have no beginning or end. (न अस्ति अन्तः विस्तरस्य मे).

प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ न अस्ति अन्तः विस्तरस्य मे ॥ 



VERSE – 10:20

I am the universal soul (सर्वात्मा) abiding in the heart of all beingsअहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः ।अहमादिश्च मध्यं च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥१०:२०॥ 

ahamātmā guḍākēśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ |

ahamādiśca madhyaṁ ca bhūtānāmanta ēva ca ||10:20||


अहम् आत्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः ।

अह आदिः च मध्यम् च भूतानाम् अन्तः एव च ॥ 


अहम् –I आत्मा –the supreme spirit गुडाकेश –O Gudakesha, Arjuna सर्वभूताशयस्थितः –seated in the heart of all beings अहम् –I आदिः -begining च -and मध्यम् –the middle च -and भूतानाम् –of all beings अन्तः -end एव -even च -and


O Conqueror of sleep (Arjuna)!, I am the self in the heart of all creatures; I am their origin,existence and Finality.


अहम् आत्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः । गुडाकेश one who has overcome sleep, sloath and laziness (गुडाक् sleep ईश –conqueror).

अहम् आत्मा सर्वभूताशयस्थितः – I am the self abiding in the heart of all beings. This conscious self has been referred to in Gita by different names such as para prakrati (परा प्रक्रति, the higher nature in chapter 7:05) and (क्षेत्रज्ञ knower of the field in 13:01). The lord declares the soul as identical with him.


 Am the self whose existence is understood only by turning one’s vision inward; the indwelling Self; kutashtha; Brahman or pratyagatma. I am the self of all beings. Lord is not an idol or image. He is not an individual either.

अहम् आदिः मध्यम् भूतानाम् अन्तः एव –I am the beginning, middle and end of all beings. I am the cause of their birth, sustainance and dissolution (उत्पत्ति, स्थिति, लय कारणम्). भूतानाम् indicates all the living and non-living objects.


Now in the next twenty-three verses upto the end of this chapter, the Lords sets out to explain in detail his Vibhuti.

VERSE – 10:21

The lord explains his form as universal soulआदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् ।मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मि नक्षत्राणामहं शशी ॥१०:२१॥ 

ādityānāmahaṁ viṣṇurjyōtiṣāṁ raviraṁśumān |

marīcirmarutāmasmi nakṣatrāṇāmahaṁ śaśī ||10:21||


आदित्यानाम् अहम् विष्णुः ज्यॊतिशाम्  रविः अंशुमान् ।

मरीचिः मरुताम् अस्मि नक्षत्राणाम् अहम् शशी ॥ 


आदित्यानाम् =among the Adityas अहम् –I विष्णुः –Vishnu र्ज्योतिषाम् –among the luminaries रविः –I am the sun अंशुमान् –the radiant मरीचिः -Marich मरुताम् –among the Maruts (winds) अस्मि –I am नक्षत्राणाम् –among the stars अहम् -I शशी –the moon


Among Adityas (twelve effulgent beings), I am Vishnu; among luminaries, I am the radiating sun; among the maruts (forty-nine wind gods) I am Marichi; among the heavenly stars, I am the moon.


आदित्यानाम् अहम् विष्णुः ज्यॊतिशाम्  रविः अंशुमान् ।

र्ज्योतिषाम् –among the luminaries रविः –I am the radient sun. Among the lights the sun is the greatest. That is why he is called surya Narayana. Other ligts are moon, stars, lightining, and fire. The sin is the brigtest of them all. So the Lord says I am the sun.

मरीचिः मरुताम् अस्मि नक्षत्राणाम् अहम् शशी ॥ 

Among the Marut Ganas, I am Narihi he wind which is nearest to earth. Among the stars, I am the moon. Other stars are Ashwini, Bharani, Krutika, rohinI. There are 27 strars.  

VERSE – 10:22

 वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः ।इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना ॥१०:२२॥

vēdānāṁ sāmavēdō’smi dēvānāmasmi vāsavaḥ |

indriyāṇāṁ manaścāsmi bhūtānāmasmi cētanā ||10:22||


वेदानाम् सामवेदः अस्मि देवानाम् अस्मि वासवः ।

इन्द्रियाणाम् मनः च अस्मि भूतानाम् अस्मि चेतना ॥ 

वेदानाम् –among the Vedas सामवेदः –samaveda अस्मि –I am देवानाम्-amng the devas अस्मि –I am वासवः –Vasava इन्द्रियाणाम् –among the sense organs मनः –the mind च –and अस्मि –I am भूतानाम् –among the living beings अस्मि –I am चेतना -consciousness


Among the Vedas, I am Samaveda; among gods I am vasava (Indra); among the organs of perception, I am the mind (manas); in creatures, I am the intelligence.


वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः । I am Samaveda among the vedas. There are four Vedas namely, Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samavda and Atharvana Veda. Among these the Lord says, I am Samaveda. In giving examples of his vibhuti or divine manifestations, he selects 23 instances of excellence.

Samaveda is full of sweet psalms and the most charming praises of God. Therefore the the Lord speaks of the

Samaveda as his own self.

देवानाम् वासवः अस्मि –Vasava is another name of Indra. Threre are several gods like sun-god, moon-god, rain-god etc. Indra is foremost of them. He is the king of heaven.

इन्द्रियाणाम् मनः च अस्मि भूतानाम् अस्मि चेतना ॥ 

I am the mind among the sense organs and the

consciousness among the beings. Manas the mind, is the co-ordinator of the ten sense organs, five organs of perception (sight, smell, speech, touch, taste) and five organs of action (the hands, feet, organ of procreation and two organs of  evacuation). Without mind no external impulses could be analyzed and conveyed. Thus it is superior to all sense organs. Mind exists without the senses in dream state.  It can hear, smell etc and do all actions without the physical senses being active.

भूतानाम् चेतना अस्मि –I am the intelligence in creatures.

Intellect  is responsible for the processing of impulses

received from external world through senses. It can judge, discriminate and decide what is right and what is wrong. It helps the mind to turn away from the spurious pleasures of senses and helps to concentrate on  soul-blessedness and achive liberation. The word chetana is used with reference to the absolute consciousness or transcendent soul. But in this reference it should be understood as विज्ञान or intelligence.


VERSE – 10:23

 रुद्राणां शंकरश्चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्षरक्षसाम् ।वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणामहम् ॥१०:२३॥ 

rudrāṇāṁ śaṁkaraścāsmi vittēśō yakṣarakṣasām |

vasūnāṁ pāvakaścāsmi mēruḥ śikhariṇāmaham ||10:23||


रुद्राणाम् शंकरः च अस्मि वित्तेशः यक्षरक्षसाम् ।

वसूनाम् पावकः च अस्मि मेरुः शिखरिणाम् अहम् ॥ 

रुद्राणाम् –among the Rudras शंकरः –Shankara च –and अस्मि –I am वित्तेशः –the Lord of wealth (Kubera) यक्षरक्षसाम् –among the Yakshas and Rakshasas वसूनाम् –among the Vasus पावकः –Pavaka च –and अस्मि –I am मेरुः –Meru शिखरिणाम् –among the mountains अहम् –I am 

 Among the Rudras (eleven gods of destruction), I am Shiva (their leader, ” the well-wisher”); Among the yakshas and rakṣasās (astral demi-gods), I am the lord of riches (kubera); of the vasus (eight vitalizing beings) I am Paavaka (the God of fire who has purifying power); and of mountains peaks, I am Meru.

VERSE – 10:24

 पुरोधसां च मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम् ।सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः ॥१०:२४॥ 

purōdhasāṁ ca mukhyaṁ māṁ viddhi pārtha br̥haspatim |

sēnānīnāmahaṁ skandaḥ sarasāmasmi sāgaraḥ ||10:24||


पुरोधसाम्  च मुख्यम् माम् विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम् ।

सेनानीनम्  अहम्  स्कन्दः सरसाम् अस्मि सागरः ॥ 


पुरोधसाम् –Among the household preists च –and मुख्यम् –the chief माम् -me विद्धि –know पार्थ –O Partha बृहस्पतिम् –as Brahaspati सेनानीनाम् –among the generals  अहम्  –I am स्कन्दः –Skanda सरसाम् –among the water bodies अस्मि –I am सागरः –the ocean


And O son of pritha (Arjuna), among the priests, understand me to be their chief , Brahaspati; among the army generals, I am Skanda; and among the water bodies, I am the ocean.


पुरोधसाम्  च मुख्यम् माम् विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम्

Brahaspati  is the chief priest of heaven, repository of learning and wisdom.

सेनानीनम्  अहम्  स्कन्दः सरसाम् अस्मि सागरः ॥ 

Skanda or Kartikeya  is the celestial army general. He is the son of Shiva. He has six heads and 12 arms. Skanda, the attacker, represents self-control , the discipline in keeping the sense organs in leash.

Among the water bodies in the earth, I am the ocean.


VERSE – 10:25

 महर्षीणां भृगुरहं गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम् ।यज्ञानां जपयज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः ॥१०:२५॥ 

maharṣīṇāṁ bhr̥gurahaṁ girāmasmyēkamakṣaram |

yajñānāṁ japayajñō:’smi sthāvarāṇāṁ himālayaḥ ||10:25||


महर्षीणाम् भृगुः अहम् गिराम् अस्मि एकम् अक्षरम्

यज्ञानाम्  जपयज्ञः अस्मि स्थावराणाम्  हिमालयः

महर्षीणाम् –among the great rishis भृगुः –Bhrigu अहम् –I am  गिराम् –among the words अस्मि –I am एकम् –one अक्षरम् –syllable Om यज्ञानाम् –among the sacrifices जपयज्ञः –the sacrifice of the silent repetition अस्मि –I am स्थावराणाम् –among the immovable things हिमालयः –the Himalayas


Among the Maharshis (mighty sages), I am Bhrigu; among the words, I am the monosyllable sound ‘om”, among the yajnas I am japa Yajna (silent repetition of mantra), among the immovables, I am the Himalayas.


महर्षीणाम् भृगुः अहम् गिराम् अस्मि एकम् अक्षरम्

महर्षीणाम् भृगुः अस्मि – Among the great sages I am Bhrigu. There are ten maharshis who were born from the mind of Brahma. The maharshis having realized Brahman by their knowledge almost remain in their inactive wisdom-state, whereas Bhragu was well known for his wisdom and activity. Wisdom with divine action is the balanced ideal most pleasing to God since that also is his nature.

गिराम् अस्मि एकम् अक्षरम् –Among the words I am the one-syllable sound Om. It is a cosmic sound which indicates the omnipresence of God. Just as the roar of the ocean is the combined sound of the waves, the sound of Om is the totality of creative vibration. In chapter 08:13, the lord himself says:

ओमित्येकाक्षरं ब्रम्ह व्याहरन्मामनुस्मरन् ।यः प्रयाति त्यजन्देहं स याति परमां गतिम् ॥८: १३॥ 

….uttering the one syllable Om, the holy word of Brahman, and remembering Me (the spirit) at the time of his final exit from the body, reaches the highest goal.

यज्ञानाम्  जपयज्ञः अस्मि स्थावराणाम्  हिमालयः

यज्ञानाम् जपयज्ञः अस्मि –Among the yajnas, I am the japa Yajna. Japa is the repetition of the divine name or a mantra. Chanting of japa fills the mind with holy vibrations that neutralizes the vibrations of material consciousness. Japayajna excels all other forms of Yajna. A realized yogi practisces japa in silence when he listens to the actual cosmic sound of Om, vibrating within him.

Swami Ramakrishna used to say hilariously. Nama (name of Lord) and naami (famous) ae both same. Rama himself had to build a bridge to go to Lanka. But the nami, Hanuman flew all the way with the support of Rama’s nama.

By practising japa yajna, (repeating lord’s name mentally) the mind becomes clear of all crowded thoughts  negativities.

पूजा कॊटि समः स्तोत्रम्, स्तोत्र कॊटि समम् जपः A stotra or a psalm is equal to a koti puja and a japa is equal to kopti stotra.


स्थावराणाम् अस्मि हिमालयः –Among the immovables, I am the peak of Himalayas. Himalaya has a unique position among the yogis in India, because it provides perfect place for austerities and sadhanas for attainmement of liberation.


VERSE – 10:26

 अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणां देवर्षीणां च नारदः ।गन्धर्वाणां चित्ररथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः ॥१०:२६॥ 

aśvatthaḥ sarvavr̥kṣāṇāṁ dēvarṣīṇāṁ ca nāradaḥ |

gandharvāṇāṁ citrarathaḥ siddhānāṁ kapilō muniḥ ||10:26||


अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणाम् देवर्षीणम् च नारदः ।

गन्धर्वाणम् चित्ररथः सिद्धानम् कपिलः मुनिः ॥ 

अश्वत्थः –Ashwatha सर्ववृक्षाणाम् –among all the trees देवर्षीणाम् –among the celestial sages च –and नारदः –Narada गन्धर्वाणाम् –among the gandharvas चित्ररथः –Chitraratha सिद्धानाम् –among the Siddhas (the perfected ones) कपिलः –Kapila मुनिः -sage


Among all the trees, I am Aswhatha (the holy fig tree); among devarshis (divine sages), I am Narada; among the Gandharvas (celestial musicians), I am Chitraratha; among the Siddhas (perfect liberated beings), I am Kapila.


अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणाम् देवर्षीणम् च नारदः ।

अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणाम् –Among all trees I am the holy fig tree. This tree is said to be the holy tree because it represents the cosmos. The fruit, leaves, branches, and its roots have

medicinal value. It said that by circumambivating the tree, all the wishes are fulfilled. Its seeds are small but a large tree grows out of it.   The vibhuti of God is also like that.

This tree is worshipped as the seat of trimurthi.

मूलतॊ ब्रह्म रूपाय मध्यतो विष्णुरूपिणॆ

अग्रतः शिवरूपाय अश्वथाय नमोनमः



15th chapter described Ashwatha to aninverted tree. It refers to the chaning world. अ not श्व tomarrow  त्थ  to stop


ऊर्ध्वमूलम् अधः शाखम् अश्वत्थम् प्राहुः अव्ययम् ।

छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यः तम् वेद सः वेदवित् ॥

They (wise people) speak of an eternal Ashwatha tree (peepul, Holy fig) as having its roots above and branches below; Its leaves are the hymns of the Vedas, and he who understands the concept of this tree  is the knower of the Vedas.


देवर्षीणाम् नारदः –Among the divine sages I am Narada.

Narada is a great devotee, higly enlightened and expert

revealer of Mantras.

गन्धर्वाणां चित्ररथः –Gandharvas are the  celestial musicans and actors and are said to be handsome and attrative. Their

females are called Apsaras. The lord calls himself as their soul.

सिद्धानाम् कपिलः मुनिः –Siddhas are the perfect beings who have supernatural powers. They are righteous, noble, endowed with knowledge and glory.  Kapila Muni was foremost of them and the aurthor of Sankhya philosophy.


VERSE – 10:27

 उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम् ।ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां च नराधिपम् ॥१०:२७॥ 

uccaiḥśravasamaśvānāṁ viddhi māmamr̥tōdbhavam |

airāvataṁ gajēndrāṇāṁ narāṇāṁ ca narādhipam ||10:27||


उच्चैःश्रवसम् अश्वानाम् विद्धि माम् अमृतोद्भवम् ।

ऐरावतम् गजेन्द्राणम् नराणम् च नराधिपम् ॥ 


उच्चैःश्रवसम् –Uchaishravas अश्वानाम् –among the horses विद्धि –know माम् –me अमृतोद्भवम् –born of nectar ऐरावतम् –Airavat गजेन्द्राणाम् –among the lordly elephants नराणाम् –among men च –and नराधिपम् –the king


Among the stallions, know me to be the celestial horse

Ucchaihshravaa, begotten along with nectar as  a product of the churning of ocean; among the mighty elephants, know me to be Airavata (indra’s elephant), and I am the king among men.


उच्चैःश्रवसम् अश्वानाम् विद्धि माम् अमृतोद्भवम् ।

–Know that among the horses, I am Ucchaishravas. During legenderay churning of the ocean by the Gods and demons who were seeking to recover the lost  nectar of immortality, were produced the nectar alongwith the the celestial horse Ucchaishravas. He is the best among the horses.

गजेन्द्राणाम् अमृतोद्भवम् ऐरावतम् विद्धि माम् –Among the

elephants, I am Airavat born of nectar. Just like

uycchaishravas, the celestial elephant Airavata was also born of the churning of the ocean. Airavata is the horse of Indra, the king of heavens.

नराणाम् नराधिपम् विद्धि माम् –I am the emperor among the men. The king is the reporsitory of virtues and righteousness. He deters the people from sinful persuits. So he is called the great among the subjects and the Lord says he is the king of Kingdom of the lord on the earth.

VERSE – 10:28

 आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् ।प्रजनश्चास्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणामस्मि वासुकिः ॥१०:२८॥ 

āyudhānāmahaṁ vajraṁ dhēnūnāmasmi kāmadhuk |

prajanaścāsmi kandarpaḥ sarpāṇāmasmi vāsukiḥ ||10:28||


आयुधानाम् अहम्  वज्रम् धेनूनाम् अस्मि कामधुक् ।

प्रजनः च अस्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणाम् अस्मि वासुकिः ॥ 


आयुधानाम् –among the weapons अहम् – I वज्रम् –the thunderbolt धेनूनाम् –among the cows अस्मि –I am कामधुक् –Kamadhuk प्रजनः-among the progenitors च -and अस्मि –I am कन्दर्पः –sexual urge  सर्पाणाम् –among the serpents अस्मि – I am वासुकिः -Vasuki


Among the weapons, I am thunderbolt; among the cows, I am Kamadhuk (the celestial cow that fulfills all desires); I am the sexual desire which leads to procreation; and among the serpents, I am Vasuki.

आयुधानाम् अहम्  वज्रम् –Among the weapons, I am thunderbolt. It is Indra’s weapon said to be unfailing. So the Lord speaks of it as his very self. Vajrayudha was made out of the bones of the rushi Dadhichi. Indra killed vruttasura with this weapon.

धेनूनाम् अहम् कामधुक् अस्मि –Among the cows I am Kamadhenu. Kamadhenu means the cow that fulfils all desires. It grants all your wish.

प्रजनः कन्दर्पः  अस्मि I am the sexual desire which leads to procreation. Kandarpa is another name of Kamadeva, the God of Love. He is compared to Greek God Eros and the

Roman God Cupid.

In the vedic concept, Kama is the desire of the one spirit to become many. The same idea was expressed in verse 11 of chapter 07, when the Lord says I am the sexual desire which is not inconsistent with Dharma. Here is the shloka:

बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम् ।

धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ ॥७ -११॥

The sexual desire born out of lust leads one to waywardness. The devine desire leads to generationof the species. The Lord says I am the sexual desire which is not opposed to righteousness.


O the best of Bharatas, Arjuna, I am the strength of the strong that are free from desire and attachments. I am the sexual desire in the beings in accord with Dharma (for the sacred purpose of procreation of species after marriage)


सर्पाणाम् अहम्  वासुकिः अस्मि –Among the snakes, I am their king Vasuki. Vasuki is the best among the serpents. He has a gemstone in his hood.


VERSE – 10:29

 अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसामहम् ।पितॄणामर्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमतामहम् ॥१०:२९॥

anantaścāsmi nāgānāṁ varuṇō yādasāmaham |

pitr̥̄ṇāmaryamā cāsmi yamaḥ saṁyamatāmaham ||10:29||


अनन्तः च अस्मि  नागानाम् वरुणः यादसाम् अहम् ।

पितॄणाम् अर्यमा च अस्मि यमः संयमताम् अहम् ॥ 


अनन्तः -Ananta च –and अस्मि –I am नागानाम् –among the Nagas वरुणः -Varuna यादसाम् –among the aquatic creatures  अहम् –I am पितॄणाम् –Among the Pitrus (manes) अर्यमा –Aryama च –and अस्मि –I am यमः –Yama , the Lord of time and death संयमता्म् –among the governers अहम् –I am


I am Ananta (the endless), among the serpents; I am Varuna (the god of ocean), among the water creatures; among the pitrus, (manes, ancestors) I am Aryama; and I am Yama (the Lord of death) among all the controllers.


अनन्तः अस्मि नागानाम् –Among the Naga-serpents, I am Ananta (the eternal one). Another name Shesha is also used for Ananta. He is said to have thousand hoods and canopies the the sleeping preserver, Vishnu during the state of dissolution. Hence he name Shesha, that which remains.  He is a great devotee of the Lord. So the lord Ananta as his own self.

वरुणः अस्मि यादसाम् –I am Varuna, the lord of the aquatic creatures. He is also a great devotee of the Lord.

पितॄणाम् अस्मि अर्यमाAmong the manes, I am their head


अहम् यमः अस्मि  संयमता्म् – I am Yama, (the god of death) among all the controllers. Among the rulers on earth as well as the celestial world, Yama is the greatest. His awards are equitable and righteous. He is an enlightened devotee of God. Hence the Lord speaks of him as his own self.


VERSE – 10:30

 प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम् ।मृगाणां च मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम् ॥१०:३०॥ 

prahlādaścāsmi daityānāṁ kālaḥ kalayatāmaham |

mr̥gāṇāṁ ca mr̥gēndrō:’haṁ vainatēyaśca pakṣiṇām ||10:30||


प्रह्लादः च अस्मि दैत्यानाम् कालः कलयताम् अहम् ।

मृगाणाम्  च मृगेन्द्रः अहम् वैनतेयः च पक्षिणाम् ॥  

प्रह्लादः –Prahlad च –and अस्मि –I am दैत्यानाम् –among the Daityas कालः –time कलयताम् –among the reckoners अहम् –I am मृगाणाम् –among the beasts च –and मृगेन्द्रः –the lion, lord of beasts अहम् –I am वैनतेयः –Son of Vinata, Garuda च -and पक्षिणाम् –among the birds


Among the daityas (demons and giants), I am the great devotee Prahlada; among the measures, I am time; among beasts, I am their king the Lion; and among birds, I am Garuda (the lord of the skies, the vehicle of Vishnu).


दैत्यानाम् प्रह्लादः अस्मि –Among the daityas, I am Prahlada. The daityas are the offspring of Diti. He was a great devotee of the Lord right from his childhood. He shunned all the evil ways and sins done by the daityas. Hence the lord says that Prahlad as his own self.

कालः कलयताम् अस्मि –Among the reckoners, I am time. Time is measured in terms of seconds, minutes, hours, day and night. Every one, the rich, poor, without any difference is subject to it but God  is beyond the time and space. The past, present and future do not apply to him, because he himself is time and measure of time.  

मृगाणाम् मृगेन्द्रः अस्मि –The proverbial king of beasts is the powerful lion. He is the strongest and most dignified beast. So Lord calls himself as his own being.

पक्षिणाम् वैनतेयः अस्मि –Garuda, the lustrous king of birds, is the divine mythological vehicle of Lord Vishnu. He is himself a great devotee of the Lord.


VERSE – 10:31

 पवनः पवतामस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम् ।झषाणां मकरश्चास्मि स्रोतसामस्मि जाह्नवी ॥१०:३१॥ 

pavanaḥ pavatāmasmi rāmaḥ śastrabhr̥tāmaham |

jhaṣāṇāṁ makaraścāsmi srōtasāmasmi jāhnavī ||10:31||


पवनः पवताम् अस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृताम् अहम् ।

झषाणाम् मकरः च अस्मि स्रोतसाम् अस्मि जाह्नवी ॥ 



पवनः the wind पवताम् –among the purifiers अस्मि –I am रामः -Rama शस्त्रभृताम् –among the weilders of weapons अहम् –I am झषाणाम् –among the fishes मकरः-the crocodile च -and अस्मि –I am स्रोतसाम् –among the rivers अस्मि –I am जाह्नवी -Ganga


Among the purifiers, I am the wind; among the wielders of weapons, I am Rama; among the fishes, I am crocodile,  and Jahnavi (river Ganga) among the streams.


पवनः पवताम् अस्मि –Among the purifiers, I am the wind. Wind has the best purifying, cleaning and purging power.

शस्त्रभृताम् रामः अस्मि –Rama revered as the avatar of Vishnu was a great and noble king of India. It is said that during his kingdom, no death or disease touched the kingdom. He was great wielders of weapons. Lord calls Rama as his own being.

झषाणाम् मकरःअस्मि –Among the fishes, the crocodile is the largest and most powerful. It is also called graaha (ग्राह). That means the winch. It only knows how to bite but does not know how to release it.  In spiritual way, the world is the graaha. It binds us with spurious pleasures. In order to free ourselves we have to learn that, it is also a vibhuti of the Lord.

स्रोतसाम् जाह्नवी अस्मि –Among the streams I am Jahnavi. The river Ganga is also called Jahnavi.  Since it has flown from the ear it is called jahnavi. Ganga is the holiest of the rivers. It is a representative of the Lord.


VERSE – 10:32

 सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यं चैवाहमर्जुन ।अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् ॥१०:३२॥ 

sargāṇāmādirantaśca madhyaṁ caivāhamarjuna |

adhyātmavidyā vidyānāṁ vādaḥ pravadatāmaham ||10:32||


सर्गाणाम् आदिः अन्तः च  मध्यम् च एव अहम अर्जुन ।

अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानाम् वादः प्रवदताम् अहम् ॥  


सर्गाणाम् –among the creations आदिः –the beginning अन्तः –the end च -and मध्यं –the middle च -and एव -also अहम् -I अर्जुन –Arjuna अध्यात्मविद्या –the knowledge of supreme self विद्यानाम् –among the sciences वादः –logic प्रवदताम् –among arguments अहम् –I am


Among the creations O Arjuna!, I am the beginning, the middle and the end. Among he sciences, I am the science of the supreme self; and I am the logic in all arguments


अहम् सर्गाणाम् आदिः अन्तः मध्यं –I am the beginning, middle and end of all manifestations. The word सर्गाणाम् indicates all the living and non-living beings whereas भूतानाम्  indicates only the living beings. He creates, upholds, and calls back all his  creations, living and non-living  into his own being. The same idea has been expressed in verse 20 of 10th chapter which reads as below:


अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः । अहमादिश्च मध्यं च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥१०:२०॥ 

O Conqueror of sleep (Arjuna), I am the self in the heart of all

creatures; I am their origin,existence and Finality.


The lord says I am उत्पत्ति, स्थिति, लय कारणम्. In Puranas this work has been delegated to the triumvirate of Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswhara. Just as the creation, sustanence and dissolution of the wave is nothing but the ocean, the three functions of सर्गाणाम् आदिः अन्तः च  मध्यम् च is nothing but God.


विद्यानाम् अहम् अध्यात्मविद्या –Among all branches of knowledge, I am wisdom of self. Adhyatma vidya or Brahma Vidya is that branch of knowledge which deals with the

nature of self and means and methods of realizing Him. All other branches of knowledge such as chemistry, physics, rocket Science, warfare, politics, and economics deal with the material knowledge. They no doubt make our life easy and comfortable but at the same time they bind us more and more to the matter. But the Adhyatma vidya gives us

liberation. That is why it is superior knowldgde and God says it is his own form. अर्थकारी विद्या, परमार्थकारी विद्या


प्रवदताम् अहम् वादः –Among the arguments, I am the logic. There are three types of arguments :  जल्प, वितण्ड, and वाद. Jalpa is the argument done with a view to establishng one’s own superiority or demolishing the view of the opponent. No heed is given whether the facts are right or wrong. Vitanda is the argument employed with a view to demolish the opponent’s standpoint. Vada is the debate resorted to arriving at the right conclusion. Here winning one’s own point of view or belittling the others are not a criterion. Establishment of truth is the prime concern. Jalpa and Vitanda give rise to

anger, hatred, pride and other evils. Vada is useful in

attaining the truth and spiritual goal. The Lord declares that I am the merit of the Vada.

VERSE – 10:33

 अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च ।अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतोमुखः ॥१०:३३॥ 

akṣarāṇāmakārō:’smi dvandvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca |

ahamēvākṣayaḥ kālō dhātāhaṁ viśvatōmukhaḥ ||10:33||


सर्गाणाम् आदिः अन्तः च  मध्यम् च एव अहम अर्जुन ।

अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानाम् वादः प्रवदताम् अहम् ॥  


अक्षराणाम् –among the letters अकारः –I am the alphabet A अस्मि –I am द्वन्द्वः –the dual compound सामासिकस्य –among the compound words च –and अहम् –I am एव –verily अक्षयः –the endless कालः –time धाता –the sustainer अहम् –I am विश्वतोमुखः –the all-faced (having faces in all directions) meaning omniscient


Among the alphabets I am the letter ‘A’; among compound words, I am the dual or copulative compound. I am verily the endless time (devourer of time); I am the sustainer of all having my face on all sides.


अक्षराणाम् अकारः अहम् –Among the letters I am the alphabet ‘A’ or अ. A  is the first of all vowels (स्वर) and consonants (व्यन्जन) and no consonant can be pronounced without the help of an vowel. Shruti says, “अकारो वै सर्वा वाक्”, all speech is represented by the sound A. “A” is the first letter of the primordeal sound ॐ. Or अ उ म . It is the total sound of the creative, preservative and dissolving vibrations in nature. The  Lord therefore says, “I am the alphabet A”

सामासिकस्य द्वन्द्वः अहम् –Among the compound words, I am the dual compound. In Sanskrit grammer, two or more words are conjoined together to make a single compound word or samasa. There are many types of compound words. In the compound word सीतापति meaning the husband of Sita, the emphasis is on pati rather than Sita. The outcome therefore refers to Rama, the husband of Sita. In the compound word pītāmbara (पीताम्बरा), which has two words Pita meaning yellow and Ambara meaning garment, the final compound does not represent either of the components. The actual meaning of this compound word is the lord who wears a yellow robe. In the form of compound known as dwandva (the copulative compound) however all the components carry equal emphasis. The compound word ‘Ramalakshmanau’ (रामलक्ष्मणौ) is an example of dwandva compound. It has two components Rama and Laxmana. Both carry equal emphasis. The lord says I am dwandva compound.

अहम् एव अक्षयः कालः –I am the immortal time. The word kāla has been referred to in verse 30 also. प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानाम् कालः कलयतामहम् Among the measures, I am time. There is huge  difference in the meaning of the word kāla used in these two verses. In the verse 30 kāla was used in the sense of measurement of time such as kalpa, yuga, year, month, day, night, hour to seconds. It is used in the meaning of time. It is an evolute of prakati and ceases to exist during pralaya or dissolution. Therefore it is not अक्षयः or eternal, immutable. However for the word kāla in the verse 33  there is an adjective अक्षयः or eternal, immutable. Time referred to here is identical to Brahman who is eternal consciousness. It is beyond prakrati.

अहम् धाता विश्वतोमुखः –I am the supporter of all having my face turned on all sides. Here the Lord brings his identity with the omniscient cosmic form of God. Here the lord is speaking to Arjuna in the form of Krishna as revealed in chapter 11 which is the next one.


VERSE – 10:34

 मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम् ।कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा ॥१०:३४॥ 

mr̥tyuḥ sarvaharaścāhamudbhavaśca bhaviṣyatām |

kīrtiḥ śrīrvākca nārīṇāṁ smr̥tirmēdhā dhr̥tiḥ kṣamā ||10:34||

मृत्युः सर्वहरः च अहम् उद्भवः च भविष्यताम् ।

कीर्तिः श्रीः वाक् च नारीणाम् स्मृतिः मॆधा धृतिः क्षमा ॥


मृत्युः –death सर्वहरः –all-devouring च -and अहम् –I am उद्भवः –the origin च –and भविष्यताम् –of future beings  कीर्तिः –fame श्रीः –prosperity वाक् –speech च –and नारीणाम् –of the feminine स्मृतिः –the memory मेधा –intellect  धृतिः –firmness क्षमा –forgiveness


I am the all-dissoling death; and I am the birth, and the origin of all that will be. Among the feminine manifestations (qualities of prakrati), I am the seven goddess presiding over glory, prosperity, speech, memory, discriminative intelligence, resolve and forebearence.


अहम् मृत्युः सर्वहरः –I am death, the destroyer of all. He speaks of death as his very self. He has already stated in chapter 9:19 that he is death as well as immortality. Here is the


अमृतं चैव मृत्युश्च सदसच्चाहमर्जुन ॥९:१९॥

 I am the immortality as well as the death”

अहम् मृत्युः I am the death, the principle of destruction of the individual and cosmos. God is both creation and destruction. In verse 32 of chapter 11,  the lord says,”I am the inflamed Kaala (God of death), the destroyer of the worlds”

कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो लोकान्समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः


The very name of death brings fear in us. This is a wrong idea. Death cannot be escaped. Death is the only certain thing on earth. Death is not biased. It is the leveller of all. It equally consumes the rich and poor, the ruler and the ruled, one who is afraid of it and one who faces it boldly, the wise and the fool, the strong and weak. In life we may be distinct but in death we are treated the same.

Death makes the world growing and ever new. When the flower dies, the fruit appears. The old tree sheds leaves make way for new ones.

अहम् उद्भवः भविष्यताम् – “I am the cause of all that is going to be”. उद्भवः means the cause or birth. All that is going to come is nothing but God. Although we know this, we try to know what the future holds for us. We consult, astrologers and palmists. In this  we are wasting our time and money. it is

futile exercise because the Lord says I am  उद्भवः the cause. When the cause is known as God why worry about the result?. When we have him in our heart there is no need to know the future.

अहम् नारीणाम् कीर्तिः श्रीः वाक् स्मृतिः मेधा धृतिः क्षमा च –I am the goddess of  glory, prosperity, speech, memory, intelligence, steadfastness, and forebearance. These are my seven feminine attributes. These are the attributes of  nature God’s consort, the Cosmic Mother, the Shakti or the vibratory power of spirit. These seven angels bestow their qualities on all objects and beings. Man has the power to negate or enhance their beneficial effects in life.

कीर्तिः – glory. This is the subtle power such as the glory of a flower; or a man’s good repute. कीर्तिः स प्रविभ्रष्टो जीवन्नपि न जीवति. One who has his lost his fame although continues to live, virtually does not live. The angel of fame is loved by all. He who is disgraced, dishonoured is shunned by everyone.

श्रीः –Prosperity. Prosperity gives wealth and plenty. It is said, “सर्वे गुणाः काञ्चनमाश्रयन्ति”—all vitues fallow wealth.

Prosperity is very impotant to gain wealth, power, happiness, peace and fame.  Propserity obtained by good deeds, hard work and righteousness and generosity is a vibhuti or manifestation of God.

वाक् –speech. Speech is golden. A wise man knows where speech is proper and where silence is so. It is the voice of the heart. Vedas are a collection of voices. vāṇī  or speech is the image of goddess Saraswati. Atharva veda says, : पयस्वन् मामकम् वचः” “let my speech become pure like milk. The speech of a wise person brings peace and reduces tension. Kannada reformer Basavanna says, the speech should be like the beads of pearl (ನುಡಿದರೆ ಮುತ್ತಿನ ಮಾಲೆಯಂತಿರಬೇಕು). The lord resides in the heart of all in this feminine attribute.

स्मृतिः –Memory. Memory is the continuity of consciousness in the past and present. The seed is the genetic memory of the tree and grows into a huge tree. A man and animal have the memory of the past and present. As the memory power increases a man becomes bright and skilled.  It is said in verse 63 of second chapter that loss of memory causes the loss of intelligenc  स्मृतिभ्रंशाद बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति  and

ultimate downfall.र्तिः स पि न जीवति

मेधा –Intelligence. It is the decriminatory power of mind. It decides what is right and what is wrong. It controls the mind and sense organs. Medha is  the power of comprehension and retension (ग्रहणशक्ति- धारण शक्ति). In Vedas the sages pray to God to give them the power of Medha;


मेधां मे वरुणो ददातु मेधाम् अग्निः प्रजापतिः ।
मेधाम् इन्द्रस् च वायुश् च मेधां धाता ददातु मे स्वाहा ॥


Hey Indra please bestow me with the power of

understanding and retaining. 


धृतिः –Resolve. When all is lost it is the Dhriti or steadfastness that keeps us going. It is the stepping stone of success. In the goal of spirituality we should have firm resolve and not loose heart. Success is sure to come. Dhriti is a glory of God.

क्षमा –Forebearence. It is the power that resists disturbing fluctuations of mind and keep the seeker calm, patient, and stable minded. Tolerance and temperance are its stepping stone.

The above seven are the attributes of the Mother Nature as seen as seven angels of virtue or goddesses’.


VERSE – 10:35

 बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् ।मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः ॥१०:३५॥ 

br̥hatsāma tathā sāmnāṁ gāyatrī chandasāmaham |

māsānāṁ mārgaśīrṣō:’hamr̥tūnāṁ kusumākaraḥ ||10:35||


बृहत्साम तथा साम्नाम्  गायत्री छन्दसाम् अहम् ।

मासानाम्  मार्गशीर्षः अहम्  ऋतूनाम्  कुसुमाकरः ॥ 


बृहत्साम -Brahatsama तथा –also साम्नाम् –among the Sama hymns गायत्री –Gayatri छन्दसाम् –among the meters अहम् –I am मासानाम् –among the months मार्गशीर्षः –Margasheersha, partly December and January अहम् –I am ऋतूनाम् –among the seasons कुसुमाकरः –the flowery season


Among the samas (hymns), I am the Brahat Sama; among the poetic meters, I am Gayatri; among the months, I am Margashirsha; and among the seasons, I am Kusumakara (spring).


साम्नाम् बृहत्साम अहम् –Among the samas, I am Brahatsama. Samaveda contains melodious psams in praise of Indra. They are sung towards the end of the sacrifice. Brahatsama excels being most attractive. Men and Gods become happy listening to it. This is the vibhuti of God.

छन्दसाम् गायत्री अस्मि– Among Chandas I am Gayatri Chandas. The verses in Vedas have a variety of different meters or Chandas (छन्दस्). They are grouped by the number of padas (quarters) in a verse and the number of syllables in a pada.  

A syllable is a unit of sound having one vowel sound, with or without a consonant forming the whole or part of a word. For example there are two syllables in the word water and three in inferno. The word नमस्ते has three syllables

The study of vedic meter ((छन्दः) is one of the six vedangas (वॆदांग) or disciplines or “organs of Vedas”. Now we shall take up actual study of a chandas.

For example the first verse of Gita reads like this:-

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः |
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ||१-१||

There are  four quarters in this verse which may be written down as below.

धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे
समवेता युयुत्सवः |
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव
किमकुर्वत सञ्जय ||१-१||

This verse which has four quarters or pada. Each quarter has 8 syllables. So there are 32 syllable. This chandas is called Anushtup chandas. (अनुष्टुप्छन्दः). This is the meter employed in Mahabharata, Valmiki Ramayana and several Veda Mantras.

Now Gayatri Chandas:

तत्स॑वितुर्वरे॑णियं  ।

भ॒र्गो॑ दे॒वस्य॑ धीमहि ।

धियो॒ यो नः॑ प्रचो॒दया॑त् ॥

Gayatri mantra has 3 padas of 8 syllables containing 24 syllables in each stanza. Among the chandas, I am Gayatri.That is why the lord says I am Gayatri Chandas.

मासानाम् मार्गशीर्षः अहम् –The month Margashirsha correspondes with the months of December and January of gregorean calendar also called English calendar. These months in India are the healthiest months, with cool weather and

plenty of water resources. Bhagavad Gita originated in this month. That is why the Lord says I am Margashirsah month. Marga means the path and shirsha means the head. In pre-mahabharata times, the new year started from th month of Margashirsha.

ऋतूनाम् कुसुमाकरः अस्मि –All the seasons are important. The spring season or  कुसुमाकरः literally means abounding with flowers. This is the season when the valleys and fields are cloathed with flower-bearing plants. The tanks are full with lotus and lilies. 


VERSE – 10:36

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ।जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम् ॥१०:३६॥ 

dyūtaṁ chalayatāmasmi tējastējasvināmaham |

jayō:’smi vyavasāyō:’smi sattvaṁ sattvavatāmaham ||10:36||

द्यूतः छलयताम्  अस्मि तेजः तेजस्विनाम् अहम् ।

जयः अस्मि व्यवसायः अस्मि सत्त्वम् सत्त्ववताम्  अहम् ॥ 

द्यूतम् –the gambling छलयताम् –among the fraudulent अस्मि –I am तेजः -splendour तेजस्विनाम् –the splendid अहम् –I am जयः –Victory अस्मि –I am व्यवसायः –determination अस्मि –I am सत्वम् –the goodness सत्त्ववताम् –of the good अहम् –I am


I am the gambling in the practices of fraud; I am the

radiance of the radiant; I am the victory of the victorious; I am the resolve of the resolute, and the goodness of the good.


द्यूतम् छलयताम् अस्मि –I am the gambling among the cheats. The God, having said earlier that there is nothing other than me, cannot disassociate himself from the vice and negative qualities. He is equally present in abstract ideas like glory, righteousness and knowledge, as he is there in vices, fraud, deceipt etc. God is present in all. Without him no activity good or bad can take place. It is our quality of satva, rajas or tamas which drives us into good or bad actions. Both good and bad are products of divine power. Maya creates

multitude of merits and demerits that thave no real existence. Vice and virtue are not two things but are degrees of the same scale. In a scale of 10, less than 5 are negative

virtues and after 5 starts the positive virtues. It is true that God also dwells in the sinful ones also. As  Gandhi said, we must not hate the criminal but hate the crime. God has given us discretion. We are free either to choose diviity or devilishness.

तेजः तेजस्विनाम् अस्मि –I am the splendour among the splendid, I am the glory of the glorifed. Strength, valour are his vibhuti.

अहम् जयः अस्मि –I am the victory. God is the victory in the wars as well as our spiritual persuits.

अहम् व्यवसायः अस्मि –I am the resolution of the resolute.

अहम् सत्वम् सत्त्ववताम् अस्मि –I am the goodness of the good.

VERSE – 10:37

 वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनंजयः ।मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः ॥१०:३७॥ 

vr̥ṣṇīnāṁ vāsudēvō:’smi pāṇḍavānāṁ dhanaṁjayaḥ |

munīnāmapyahaṁ vyāsaḥ kavīnāmuśanā kaviḥ ||10:37||


वृष्णीनाम् वासुदेवः अस्मि पाण्डवानाम् धनंजयः ।

मुनीनाम् अपि अहम् व्यासः कवीनाम् उशना कविः ॥ 


वृष्णीनाम् –among the Vrushnis वासुदेवः –Vasudeva, son of Vasudeva अस्मि –I am पाण्डवानाम् –among the Pandavas धनंजयः–Dhananjaya conqueror of riches, refers to Arjuna  मुनीनाम् –among the sages अपि –also अहम् –I am व्यासः –Vyasa कवीनाम् –among the wise उशना कविः –Ushana kavi, refers to Shukracharya, the preceptor of the demon kings


Among yadavas, I am Vasudeva, Dhanjaya among pandavas, vedavyasa among the hermits and ushana kavi among the wise.


वृष्णीनाम् वासुदेवः अस्मि –Among Vrishnis, I am Vasudeva. Yadu, the ancestors of Yadavas had a son by name Vrishni. His children and grand- children are called Vrishnis. Krishna, the son of Vasudeva (वसुदेव) is called vāsudēva (वासुदेव). By calling vāsudēva his own self, the identity between manifestation of God and God himself is established.

पाण्डवानाम् धनंजयः अस्मि –Among the Pandavas, I am Dhanajaya, the winner of wealth meaning Arjuna. पाण्डवानाम् means Pandava dynasty.

मुनीनाम् व्यासः अहम् –Among the sages, I am Vyasa. Krsihna declares himself as his ideal devotee Vyasa, the author of this devine discourse.

कवीनाम् उशना कविः –God extols the ancient poet and sage Ushnas, who had great powers, including that of resurrecting the dead. He was the preceptor of the demons who tormented gods. The lord says that this wise man is also his Vibhuti.


VERSE – 10:38

 दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् ।मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम् ॥१०:३८॥ 

daṇḍō damayatāmasmi nītirasmi jigīṣatām |

maunaṁ caivāsmi guhyānāṁ jñānaṁ jñānavatāmaham ||10:38||


दण्डः दमयताम् अस्मि नीतिः अस्मि जिगीषताम् ।

मौनम् च  एव अस्मि गुह्यानाम् ज्ञानम्  ज्ञानवताम् अहम् ॥ 


दण्डः –the sceptre दमयताम् –among the punishers अस्मि –I am नीतिः –statesmanship अस्मि –I am जिगीषताम् –among the seekers of victory मौनम्–silence च –and एव –also अस्मि –I am गुह्यानाम् –among the secrets ज्ञानम् –the knowledge ज्ञानवताम् –among the knowers अहम् –I am


I am the sceptor of the discipliners, I am righteousness in those who seek to conquer, I am the silence among all secrets, and the wisdom of all  knowers 

दण्डः दमयताम् अस्मि –Danda is the rod of God who punishes the unrigteous, unruly and sinful actions. Fear of law is

necessary for disciplining the law breakers. Otherwise there will be no peace and order in the society. One may escape the punishement awarded by the state by some manipulations but the rod of God shall always chase him and punish him. He cannot escape the justice awarded by the law of Karma. To keep law and order in the society and uphold righteousness fear of punishment is necessary. The police, court, the magistratge and  jail are all a part of this rod.

 It is due to the fear of God that all the celestial objects move in their orbits, the climate and gravitational powers are working and the discipline is maintained in nature. The lord says that he is the authority possed by the gods, kings and rulers who rule according to law. Discipline is also required among the spiritual seekers. दम शम उपरति are the Lord’s own self.

नीतिः अस्मि जिगीषताम् –Niti is the right actions, noble motives and goals. Physical conquest is no victory. A man, society or government which abandons ‘Niti’ although become triumphant by dubious means are bound to fall. The Lord declares; “ I am the Niti of the winners.”

मौनम् अस्मि गुह्यानाम् –I am the silence among the secrets.

Secret is maintained by reticence. The physical objects are the gross expressions of Maya. They do not reveal the

mysterious manifestations and glory of the Lord (विभूति and योग). The knowledge of the self is described by the scriptures as the secret of secrets. It is because one has to practice through desciplines to subjectively understand this secret. The secrets of the state are best kept by silence. The lord declares that the silence is my own self.

ज्ञानम् ज्ञानवताम् अहम् –I am the knowledge of the learned. The learned or the wise are those who have realized the supreme Brahman. So the lord declares, “knowledge is my own self”.


VERSE – 10:39

 यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन ।न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम् ॥१०:३९॥ 

yaccāpi sarvabhūtānāṁ bījaṁ tadahamarjuna |

na tadasti vinā yatsyānmayā bhūtaṁ carācaram ||10:39||


यत् च अपि सर्वभूतानाम् बीजम्  तत् अहम् अर्जुन ।

न तत् अस्ति विना यत्  स्यात्  मया भूतम्  चराचरम् ॥ 


यत् -which च –and अपि-also सर्वभूतानाम् –among all beings, animate and inanimate बीजम्  -seed तत् –that अहम् –I am अर्जुन –Arjuna न –not तत् –that अस्ति –is there विना –without यत् –which स्यात् –may be मया –by me भूतम् –being चराचरम् –moving or unmoving


Whatsoever is the seed of all beings, that also I am. O Arjuna! There is nothing animate or inanimate that can exist without me.


यत् च अपि सर्वभूतानाम् बीजम्  तत् अहम् –Whatsoever is the seed of all beings, that is I am. God alone is the ultimate support and substratum of this animate and inanimate creation. It is from him that everyting originates. The lord calls this seed as imperishable seed in verse 9:18.  (बीजमव्ययम्). At the end of a kalpa the blue prints of all beings are stored in the lord and at the beginning of next kalpa, they are released. Hence he alone is the seed or the ultimate cause of all.

Every karya or effect should have a karana or cause. There is no tree without a seed. There is no hen without an egg. No pot without  clay. So, every object should  have a cause in the form of seed. The substratum and the support of the seed is the unmanifest (avyakta) spirit. He is the seed.

तत् अस्ति विना यत् स्यात् मया भूतम् चराचरम् –Thre is nothing that can exist without me. “Everything that moves (from the animate creatures to the motion of the wind, fire, planets, all forces in the cosmic nature) and all that is stationery (inert gross matter) owe their being soley to the omnipresent

consciousness of God and omnipotence of his divine will”. The first line started with the adverb यत् and second closing  line ends with तत्.


VERSE – 10:40

 नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परन्तप ।एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया ॥१०:४०॥

nāntō:’sti mama divyānāṁ vibhūtīnāṁ parantapa |

ēṣa tūddēśataḥ prōktō vibhūtērvistarō mayā ||10:40||

न अंतः अस्ति मम दिव्यानाम् विभूतीनाम् परन्तप ।

एषः तु उद्देशतः प्रोक्तः विभूतेः विस्तरः मया ॥ 

न -अन्तः –end अस्ति –is there मम -my दिव्यानाम् –of deivine विभूतीनाम् –glories परन्तप –O Parantapa एष –this तु -indeed उद्देशतः –brief statement प्रोक्तः –has been stated विभूतेः –of glory र्विस्तरः –particulars मया –by me


O Arjuna! There is no end to my divine manifestations. This is only a brief description of the extent of my divine manifestations.


परन्तप मम दिव्यानाम् विभूतीनाम् अन्तः न अस्ति –O Arjuna, there is no limit to my divine vibhuti and yoga.  The glories of Brahman during creation, sustenance and dissolution of

universe is endless cannot be counted. Just as the Lord is

infinite, so are his glories and powers.

उद्देशतः प्रोक्तः विभूतेः र्विस्तरः मया –Still, Arjuna, I have given you a brief description of the leads.

In verse 18 Arjuna requested the Lord  to describe his glories and power of Yoga. Having listed some 57 exmples or leads for us to understand, the Lord concludes the list in this verse.


VERSE – 10:41

 यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा ।तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसंभवम् ॥१०:४१॥ 

yadyadvibhūtimatsattvaṁ śrīmadūrjitamēva vā |

tattadēvāvagaccha tvaṁ mama tējōṁ:’śasaṁbhavam ||10:41||

यत् यत् विभूतिमत् सत्वम् श्रीमत् ऊर्जितम् एव वा  ।

तत् तत् एव  अवगच्छ त्वम्  मम तॆजॊंश  संभवम् ॥ 


यत् यत् –whatever विभूतिमत् –glorious सत्वम् –being श्रीमत् –prosperous ऊर्जितम् –poweful एव –also वा -of तत् तत् -that एव –only अवगच्छ –know त्वम् –you मम –mine तेजोंशसंभवम् –manifestation of a fraction of my splendour


Whatever is endowed with glory, brilliance, and power, know that to be a manifestation of a small fraction of my radiance.

यत् यत् तत् तत् Yat means what and tat means that.

Whatever is glorious that is me.

यत् यत् विभूतिमत् सत्वम् श्रीमत् ऊर्जितम् एव –Arjuna, Whatever being (सत्वम्) is endowed with glory (विभूतिमत्), prosperity (श्रीमत्), power (ऊर्जितम्),

तत् तत् एव अवगच्छ त्वम् मम तेजोंशसंभवम् –Understand that it is a very small fraction of my splendour.


God made all things in the creation with his cosmic sound of vibration, but nothing was made without his cosmic energy (John 1:03)- Yogananda


All the creations of God have a stamp of his vibhuti and yoga. We may find all the three of glory, brilliance and power in one object or only one of the factors. Every product of God bears his quality and assurance mark. The products of God are not separate from him, just as the sunshine is not separate from the sun. The beauty and splendour of the

visible universe are only a small fraction of the glory.


VERSE – 10:42

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन ।विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत् ॥१०:४२॥

athavā bahunaitēna kiṁ jñātēna tavārjuna |

viṣṭabhyāhamidaṁ kr̥tsnamēkāṁśēna sthitō jagat ||10:42||


अथवा बहुना एतेन किम् ज्ञातेन तव अर्जुन ।

विष्टभ्य अहम् इदम्  कृत्स्नम् ऎकांशेन स्थितः जगत् ॥ 


अथवा –or बहुना –by many एतेन –by this किम् –what ज्ञातेन –by knowing तव –to you अर्जुन – Arjuna विष्टभ्य –supporting अहम् –I  इदम् –this कृत्स्नम् –all एकांशेन –by one part स्थितः –exist जगत् –the world


What is the need of this detailed knowledge, O Arjuna!.

Suffice to say that I continuously support the entire cosmos by a very fraction of my divine power.


अथवा or. Krishna starts the last verse with the indeclinable (अव्यय) अथवा ‘or’. That means he wants to introduce an

alternative suggestion or something different from what has already been stated.

बहुना एतेन किम् ज्ञातेन तव अर्जुन –What is the avail to you of knowing my endless list of splendour and manifestations? The lord has given his outstanding manifestations in verses 20 to 39 asnd the various media of his manifestations in verse 41.

अर्जुन अहम् इदम् कृत्स्नम् जगत् एकांशेन विष्टभ्य स्थितः –I stand holding this entire cosmos by a fraction of my yogic power. When one knows this fact everything else will be automatically clear to him, and nothing more shall remain still to be known by him.

जगत् –universe. Entire universe consisting of different worlds and all animate and inanimate beings.

Quantitatively, manifest creation is a very small fraction of the Absolute. The universe reflects the divine splendor for human beings to see the invisible Lord. One should learn to perceive God, not only as a person or vision, but also through His splendor as manifested in the universe and through His laws that govern and control nature and life. He is existence, goodness, and beauty. 

 ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रेश्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे विभूतियोगो नाम दशमोऽध्यायः ॥ १० ॥


Summary of 10th chapter

Copied from Paramarthananda pdf


 [In the previous three chapters, Lord Kṛṣṇa revealed God as the material cause of the universe. Since the effect cannot be different from the cause, it clearly follows that the universe cannot be different from God. Thus the entire universe is the divine manifestation of God. Hence whatever glories we see in the creation belong to the Lord alone. Kṛṣṇa reveals this idea in this chapter as the culmination of his teaching of Virāṭ Viśvarūpam. In the first three verses, Kṛṣṇa introduces thetopic of  vibhūti and  yoga. vibhūti is the manifestation of Lord and yoga is the power of manifestation. Even great

sages cannot talk about the glories of theLord, because they are finite beings. Hence it is the rarest knowledge that is

given. One who gains this knowledge will be free from saṃsāra (1 to 3).

In the next four verses, the Lord reveals His glory by

Pointing out that the entire subtle universe of thoughts as well as the gross universe are born of Him. The seven great sages, the four sages Sanaka etc. , and the Manu s are all born of the mind of the Lord. One who knows this attains self-knowledge ultimately (4 to 7). The following four verses deal with the Virāṭ -devotees and the benefits of such a

devotion. The devotees accept everything as a gift of God, because God is the source of all. They think about God, speak about God, hear about God — in short they spend their lives revelling in God all the time (8, 9). Still they are saguṇa

devotees only. They are ignorant of the highest nature of the Lord. The Lord says that HE takes the responsibility of

enlightening them. Out of compassion for them, the Lord lights up the lamp of knowledge, remaining in their heart. The idea is that the Lord will provide them with a guru and the necessary conditions for the knowledge of the highest nature of God. (10, 11).

In the next seven verses (12 to 18), Arjuna requests Kṛṣṇa to reveal  the details of His glories (manifestations) which will help him in upāsanā . (Each expression of God in the universe can become a symbol for upāsanā . Later, when see every glory as the expression of God, it becomes the appreciation of  Virāṭ . This helps in the expansion of the mind. From verse 19th to the end of the chapter, Bhagavān describes His

glories. The Lord is careful to add both in the beginning and in the end that it is not an exhaustive list of His glories. They are the important ones. Nobody can exhaust the glories of the Lord (19, 40).

Kṛṣṇa  begins the enumeration with the very Self. The best, the closest and the most evident expression of the Lord is the very ‘I’, the consciousness (20).

Kṛṣṇa concludes the list by pointing out that He is the very existence in all beings, because He is the material cause (bījam ) of all (39).

 In short, whatever is glorious, rich or powerful — all of them are the expressions of only a ray of God’s glory (41). Infact it is not that the Lord’s glory is in the world, but the entire world is in the Lord, occupying a part of Him, as it were (42). The world cannot be a part of the Lord in the real sense of the term, because it is only apparent as the Lord Himself negates it in IX-5.)

First 6 chapters Prathama shatkam– the nature of jiva or individual is highlighted

7th to 12th madhyama or middle section nature of God iswara is highleted Ishwara swavupa.

Geneal definition of god is ishwara is jagat karanam, the lord is the creatior karta.

  1. So we concieve of God in our own body. The created

product is visible, I am not able to see the creator.

2 Creator is not perceived but he is inferred. So paroksha ishwara but not pratyaksha iswara.

  1. Ishwara’s nature is to be imagined. He cannot be an animal so we imagine him in human form as a very intelligent human like being.

What is the material out of which god created the world. God is also Material part. The intelligence principle chetana vastu as well as material principle achetana Tatva. Para and apara prakrati. Matter and spirit put together is God. Material cause is never away from the product, just as wood, gold  and clay etc. karanam can never be away from karya. Ishwara is never remote but actually perceived in the prodcut. pratyaksa. If you think ishwara is intelligence principle, we have to conclude that he is paroksha or inferred.  When we know he is also the material cause he becomes patyaksha. Or perceived in the product. Ishwara is a perceived object. Next what is the form of Ishwara.


Last 6 chapter are charama or final section. The essential oneness of jiva and iswara unity swarupa aikyam