Bhagavad Gita English 9

The Yoga of Royal Knowledge and Mystery, Iswara Jnyanam

राजविद्या-राजगुह्य योगः

The main topics of this chapter are:



Introduction of subject, the knowledge,

its glory and qualifications



Nature of God



Cause of bondage   



Differenct types of people who worship God



Universal form of God



Reward of sakama and nishkama upasan



The Fruit of devotion



Sakāma-bhakta  and niṣkāma-bhakta 



Glory of bhakti


 Since this chapter deals with the knowledge of God which is the greatest (rājavidyā )and the rarest (rājaguhya), it is called Rājavidyārāja guhya-yoga

Verse 9: 01

”’अथ नवमोऽध्यायः”’

Introduction to the knowledge, its glory and qualifications – Verses:  1 to 3.

Krishna dealt with सद्योमुक्ति, and निर्गुण ईश्वर ज्ञान in chapter 7 and क्रम मुक्ति सगुण ईश्वर ज्ञान (Manifest divinity) in chapter 8.  Since the subject matter of chapter 9 is also सद्योमुक्ति, निर्गुण ईश्वर ज्ञान which remains a secret for the unprepared mind, the chapter is called राजगुह्य योग , or The Yoga of Royal Knowledge and Mystery. Since only this knowledge is capable of liberating a person in this very life, it is called राजविद्या.       


Lord promises to reveal jnyana and vijnyana

इदं तु ते गुह्यतमं प्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे ।

ज्ञानं विज्ञानसहितं यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥९:१॥


idaṁ tu tē guhyatamaṁ pravakṣyāmyanasūyavē |

jñānaṁ vijñānasahitaṁ yajjñātvā mōkṣyasē:’śubhāt ||9:1||


इदम् तु ते गुह्यतमम् प्रवक्ष्यामि अनसूयवे ।

ज्ञानम् विज्ञानसहिम् यत् ज्ञात्वा  मोक्ष्यसे अशुभात्  ॥ 

इदम् –this knowledge  तु -indeed ते –to you गुह्यतमम् –greatest secret प्रवक्ष्यामि –I shall tell अनसूयवे –to the one who does not cavil ज्ञानम् –knowledge विज्ञानसहितम् –combined with experience यत् -which ज्ञात्वा –having known मोक्ष्यसे –you shall be free अशुभात् –from the evil of wordly existence.

The blessed Lord said:

To you the uncarping one, I shall now reveal the secret knowledge, the knowledge of Nirguna Brahma and the knowledge of manifest Divinity,  knowing which you shall escape the evil of wordly exisence

Chaper 9 is like a dollar in a garland which is placed in the middle. Gita is a garland of Mahabharata and the 9th chapter is its dollar.  For this purpose this chapter is held with high esteem. It is said that Jnyandev Maharaj chanted the verses of this chapter at the time of his Samadhi.

कर्मयोगी and  कर्मी – In the chapter 8, the Lord discussed about the subjects of कर्मयोगी, and कर्मी. The farmer कर्मयोगी has an attitude of dedication of all work as a duty  to God. He does not entertain the idea of doership. He, after death goes to Brahmaloka, learns the subjective knowledge of God and attains realization. There is no rebirth to him .

कर्मी on the other hand has a sense of ownership of the work and its rewards. He has selfish motive. By virtue of his good deeds he goes to heaven and after enjoying the life there, takes rebirth in this mortal world.

कर्मभ्रष्ट : There is another class of humans who are classified as  कर्मभ्रष्ट, who do not care to perform their  duties and devotion to God. They indulge in sensual activities and  evil. They do not go to another Loka after death. They are reborn in this world as lower species as insects and worms.

कर्मातीत वर्ग –This class of humans who are beyond all karmas. They are free from the binding effects of karma. They reach Brahman right in this world.

Chaper 9 deals with कर्मयोगि इदम् तु गुह्यतमम्  प्रवक्ष्यामि –I shall now discuss this most secret knowledge. The Lord uses the word Guhya tamam, the greatest secret , sublime mystery. This word has been used three times in Bhagavat Gita.

  1. Chapter 9: 01

     इदं तु ते गुह्यतमं प्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे |

     ज्ञानं विज्ञानसहितं यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् || 1||

The Supreme Lord said: O Arjuna, because you are not envious of Me, I shall now impart to you this very confidential knowledge and wisdom, upon knowing which you will be released from the miseries of material existence. I have shared this most secret principle of the Vedic scriptures with you, O sinless Arjun. By understanding this, a person becomes enlightened, and fulfills all that is to be ac-complished.

Hear again my supreme instruction, the most confidential of all knowledge. I am revealing this for your benefit because you are very dear to me.

इदम् –this knowledge of jnana and vijnyana. The word तु –indeed;- refers to a change in the subject. So far the Lord was discussing his manifested aspect. Now he wants to change the subject to unmnifested aspect.

गुह्यतमम्  – the Lord calls this knowledge not only secret (गुह्य) but गुह्यतम most secret. It is the most secret because it is incomprehensible or hidden from those who are not awakened to God consciousness.

अनसूयवे –one who does not cavil. असूया consists of belittling the merits and virtues of men and reviling at them attributing some imaginary fault in them. Shankara says, asuya consists of गुणेषु दोष अविष्करणम् or inventing faults in merit. One who does not indulge in such behaviour is called  अनसूया.

The intention of the Lord in using this word is to show that one who wants to learn this sublime knowlege should not carp on others in the first place.  In chapter 3 verse 31 the Lord says that श्रद्धावंतः and अनसूयंतः meaning only the one who has faith and does not find fault at others becomes free from the shackles of action.

Another word for Asuya is abhyasuya (अभ्यसूय) which has been used by the Lord in Ch. 3 32.  Most of us, see the mistakes in others but never in us. Even a small mistake appears like a big one. If we have to progress in spirituaity it is very important that we get rid of this bad quality. In 18th chapter, Krishna says do not teach this knowledge to those who indulge in carping and cavilling.

ज्ञानम् विज्ञानसहितम् –knowledge of the supreme combined with its realization. Knowledge comes from the study of scriptures and Guru. It is an intellectual exercise. Experience of the reality  is a subjective experience. It comes from the practice of knowledge and first hand experience of it.

Narendra asked swami Ramakrishna, “have you seen God”? The swami replied, “Well I have seen him more clearly than I see you”. This is vijnyana. Collecting all information about sugar is knowledge. Tasting it is vijnyana. This experience cannot come from any laboratory or book.

विज्ञान is the experience of Nirguna Brahma or the absolute consciousness, the formless, attributeless spirit. It can be

experienced by consistent practice of contemplation on what has been studied. A ton of books cannot give an ounce of विज्ञान.

मोक्ष्यसे अशुभात्  -you will be liberated from the ‘evil’; the shakles of wordly existence. Evil represents ajnyana. You will get jeevan mukti.

Verse 9: 02

The knowledge of immanent and transcendental aspect of God is a royal science.

राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् ।

प्रत्यक्षावगमं धर्म्यं सुसुखं कर्तुमव्ययम् ॥९:२॥

rājavidyā rājaguhyaṁ pavitramidamuttamam |

pratyakṣāvagamaṁ dharmyaṁ susukhaṁ kartumavyayam ||9:2||

राजविद्या राजगुह्यम् पवित्रम् इदम् उत्तमम् ।

प्रत्यक्षावगमम् धर्म्यम्  सुसुखम् कर्तुम् अव्ययम् ॥ 

राजविद्या –Royal science राजगुह्यम् –the royal secret पवित्रम् –purifying, holy इदम् –this knowledge (of Absolute formless Brahman as also the qualified aspect of God ) उत्तमम् -excellent प्रत्यक्षावगमम् –realizable by direct intuition धर्म्यम् -righteous सुसुखम् –very easy कर्तुम् –to perform अव्ययम् –imperishable

The knowledge of immanent (सर्वांतर्यामी ,अंतर्भूत), and

transcendental (surpassing, superior)  aspect of God is a royal science. It is peerless purifier, the most excellent, directly perceivable truth, the essence of Dharma (man’s righteous duty), easy to perform and imperishable.


राजविद्या राजगुह्यम् पवित्रम् इदम् उत्तमम्

इदम् –This refers to the knowledge of jnyana and vijnyana, knowledge of Nirguna and saguna aspect of God , transcendent and immanent aspects of God, Ishwara Jnyana which the Lord promised to explain in the previous verse. The Lord has added eight adjectives to this knowledge. These are:

  1. राजविद्या –Soveriegn Knowledge; the entire body of knowledge we acquire from the study of scriptures and

Vedas is nothing but tools to cross over the mortal world. It is not capable of freeing us from the wheel of birth and death. It is only the study and practice of Brahmavidya that is capable of making us Brahman. Just as the waking  stage

removes all the misconception about the dream and its persecutions, the dawn of Brahma- knowledge removes our ignorance and one becomes Brahman. So this knowledge is called the sovereign knowledge.

  1. राजगुह्यम् -The Royal secret. This word गुह्य or secret has already been used in the first verse. It is the royal secret

because it is incomprehensible or hidden from those who are not awakened to God consciousness.

Thre is a beautiful word called chidambara rahasya (चिदम्बर रहस्य) or divine mystery. The rahasya or secret is that there is no secret. There is a shiva temple in a place called

Chidambaram in Tamil Nadu, India. But there is no Shivalinga there but you will see an image of Nataraja. Among panchabhuta lingas, vayu linga istalled in Kalahasti. Jalalinga is there in Vellore. Agni linga is seen in Tiruvannamalai, Pruthvi linga is present in Kanchi. The Linga present in Chidambaram is called Akasha Linga. Where is Akasha or space? It is every where not at particular place. That is why there is no Linga. That shows the God is attributless and formless. That is the secret. This fact has to be experience personally.

  1. पवित्रम् – supreme purifier, holy. There are many holy

objects like the sun, moon, the Ganga, repentence, but all these can wash the sin but cannot remove the sinful mind. Brahmavidya removes the sinful mind. The purifying aspect of Brahma vidya is such that once a man is purified, he never becomes maligned again.

  1. उत्तमम् – excellent. That which causes peace is excellent, that which disturbs or agitates the mind is called mediocre. The splendid things like Kohinoor dimond, river Ganga, and

Himalaya Mountains,  have limited existence. Since the knowledge of Brahman is beyond death that is excellent.

  1. प्रत्यक्षावगमम् – that has to be directly experienced. No word can explain it. It can only be experienced subjectively.
  2. धर्म्यम् -The practice of this knowledge is the righteous


  1. कर्तुम् सुसुखम् – Easy to practice. Jivanmukti can be obtained easily
  2. अव्ययम् –The supreme truth is avyayam, or imperishable, everlasting, Once it is attained, it cannot erode or fade away. Moksha is the permanent benefit. Higher loka is avyayam

Verse 9: 03

Men who have no faith in this knowledge revolve in the wheel of birth and death

अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषा धर्मस्यास्य परन्तप ।

अप्राप्य मां निवर्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि ॥९:३॥

aśraddadhānāḥ puruṣā dharmasyāsya parantapa |

aprāpya māṁ nivartantē mr̥tyusaṁsāravartmani ||9:3||

अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषाः धर्मस्य अस्य परन्तप ।

अप्राप्य माम् निवर्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि ॥ 

अश्रद्दधानाः -without faith पुरुषाः -men अस्य धर्मस्य –in this dharma, Ishwara Jnyana, vedantic teaching  परन्तप  -O scorcher of foes, Arjuna अप्राप्य  -without attaining माम् –me निवर्तन्ते –revolve मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि –in the path of world of death

Arjuna, O scorcher of foes! People having no faith in the

efficacy of this knowledge or this Dharma (that bestows

realization) fail to reach me, and revolve in the path of world of death.


अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषाः धर्मस्य अस्य परन्तपpeople having no faith in this knowledge

अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषाः–Men without faith in this supreme knowledge. You need to have faith in the scriptures and

Guru, the essential character, glory, virtues and greatness of God, as the means to realization as described in the

scriptures . श्रद्धावान् लभते ज्ञानम् only a man of faith is qualified to gain knowledge.

अस्य धर्मस्य – in this dharma or knowledge of jnyana and vijnyana; men who repose no faith in this dharma of Nirguna and Saguna aspect of God , in the Ishwara Jnyana, Vedantic teaching. One who has no faith in this knowledge , its

sadhana or disciplines and its phala or fruits

अप्राप्य  माम् निवर्तन्ते –revolve in the cycle of birth and death, failing to reach me.

मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि – revolve in the path of world of death

without reaching me. Indian spirituality recognizes that there are 84, 00,000 species in this world. A sinful soul

transmigrates through all these species before attaining the life of human being for securing liberation. Those who do not practice this knowledge revolve in the cycle of deaths.

पुनरपि जननम् पुनरपि मरणम्

Nature of God verses 4 to 10

Verse 9: 04


Nature of God Verses 4- 10

I exist in the world in my unmanifest form. But the world does not exist in me.

मया ततमिदं सर्वं जगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना ।

मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि न चाहं तेष्ववस्थितः ॥९:४॥

mayā tatamidaṁ sarvaṁ jagadavyaktamūrtinā |

matsthāni sarvabhūtāni na cāhaṁ tēṣvavasthitaḥ ||9:4||

मया ततम् इदम् सर्वम् जगत् अव्यक्तमूर्तिना ।

मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि न च अहम्  तेषु अवस्थितः ॥

मया –by me ततम् -pervade इदम् -this सर्वम् –all  जगत् -world अव्यक्तमूर्तिना  –by me, the unmanifest divinity  मत्स्थानि –exist in me I support them सर्वभूतानि –all beings न -not च –and अहम् -me तेषु –in them अवस्थितः –I am present in them

All this world is pervaded by me in my unmanifest form; all beings abide in me but I do not  abide  in them.

Verses 4 to 10 is the central theme of Chapter 9 which deals with the absolute spirit. ब्रह्मस्वरूपम्, ईश्वर स्वरूपम् 

The Lord had promised in the first verse to divulge his Nirguna and saguna aspects; (इदम्  तु ते गुह्यतमम् ज्ञानम् विज्ञानसहितम् प्रवक्ष्यामि ). Now he proceeds to explain his unmanifest aspect (Nirguna) along with its glory.


मया ततम् इदम् सर्वम् जगत् अव्यक्तमूर्तिना ।

This world or jagat of sentient and insentient beings is

pervaded by me.  that means I am the supporter of the universe..

अव्यक्तमूर्तिना  ततम्  -is pervaded by me, in the the unmanifest (formless)  divinity (निराकार निर्गुण स्वरूप). The common examples given for this super pervasiveness are : (i)  Mud is present in all earthern wares  but the wares are not present in the mud(Ii ) Gold  is present in all gold ornaments but the ornaments are not present in the gold(iii) Air is present in the ether but ether is not present in air.the entire creation is permeatd by the unmanifest God. He is called by the following names in Gita:1. Adhiyajna in 08:04 (अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्र देहे देहभृतां वर)

  1. Supreme Divine Purusha in 08:08 (परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन्) and in 08:10 (तं परं पुरुषमुपैति दिव्यम्)

All-wise eternal being in verse 08:9 (कविम् पुराणम् अनुशासितारम्)

  1. the unmanifest and indestructible. (अन्यः अव्यक्तात् सनातनः यः सः सर्वेषु भूतेषु नश्यत्सु न विनश्यति)

4.Supreme Purusha attainable only through exclusive devotion (पुरुषः सः परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यः)

 मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि  –All beings exist in me, I am the supporter of all beings  but I do not dwell in them. “I,  in my unmanifest nature, is the substratum of all the manifested names and forms, but I do not share their joys and sorrows or destinies”. The statement becomes clearer when we consider the

example of ghost and post. The post says; “ the ghost is no doubt in me, but I am not in the ghost”.

The word sthani (स्थानि ) meaning a place of residence is translated as abide. Krishna says that all things abide in the unmanifest for it is the basis of their existence. Without the unmanifest they would not exist. But the unmanifest spirit does not depend on those beings. It would remain unchanged if they cease to exist. The unmanifested spirit

existed before the creation and shall exist after the end of creation unchanged.

Thus, being the substratum of the world, and wholly beyond it, the world being his very self, God is not in the world. God is supporter of the universe (विष्वाधारः) I am not supported by the world.

च अहम् तेषु अवस्थितः –I do not exist in them. God does not cease to exist with the cessation of the world. He shines in his glory even when there is no trace of any material existence. He is eternally existent in his own self.

Swami Paramarthananda says: Three features of Ishwara have been mentioned in verse 4.

  1. 1. अव्यक्तः I am the formless, attributeless consciousness V: 4
  2. 2. मया ततमिदम् सर्वम् V: 4
  3. 3. सर्वत्रगः I am all-pervading verse 6
  4. 4. जगत् अधिष्टानम् I am the supporter of the universe

Verse 9: 05

All beings are in me; but I am not in them.

न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ।

भूतभृन्न च भूतस्थो ममात्मा भूतभावनः ॥९:५॥

na ca matsthāni bhūtāni paśya mē yōgamaiśvaram |

bhūtabhr̥nna ca bhūtasthō mamātmā bhūtabhāvanaḥ ||9:5||

न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगम् ऐश्वरम् ।

भूतभृत् न च भूतस्थः मम आत्मा  भूतभावनः ॥  

न -not च -and मत्स्थानि –dwelling in me भूतानि -beings पश्य -behold मे -my योगम् -yoga ऎश्वरम् –devine glory, nature  भूतभृत् –supporting the beings न -not च –and भूतस्थः –dwelling in them  मम –my आत्मा -self भूतभावनः –the creator of beings

Behold my divine Yoga! All beings are apparently not in me, yet I alone am their creator and preservator; my self in reality dwells not in those beings.

न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगम् ऐश्वरम् ।

मत्स्थानि भूतानि –all the beings do not abide in me. In the second line of the previous verse the Lord had declared  मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि -all beings dwell in me . Does he contradict his own statement? He says the world exists in him and does not exist in Him both at once!

Shankaracharya deals with this paradox systematically and shows the hidden meaning of the Lord. Both the statements are correct. In the first statemet the Lord says, X is in me, but in the very next statement he says X is not in me. On closer enquiry the statements become clear. A dreamer who dreams of being chased by a ferocious tiger realises upon waking that the dream was a nightmare. It was real from the stand point of the dreamer but was not real from the stand point of a waker. So dream is called in Vedanta as Mithya (मिथ्या) or unreal.  Mithya is experiencingly available but

factually not available. It is like a mirage. Similary, what Krishna says is that world is seemingly real from the standpoint of lower reality of body, mind and intellect.  From the point of Brahman it is mithya. Lalita sahasranama lists one of the names of the Brahman as  मिथ्या जगत् अधिष्टान the substratum of apparent world.

पश्य मे योगम् ऎश्वरम्  -Behold my divine mystery. The divine mystery is the wonderful power of the Lord, who is the very substratum of everything and there is nothing other than him.

The world appears in him and in reality there is nothing other than him.

भूतभृत् न च भूतस्थः मम आत्मा  भूतभावनः ॥  

मम आत्मा – my nature. This refers to the Lord’s formless,

attribueless aspect.

भूतभृत् –supports and sustains the world and beings in the world स्थिति कारण. I am also laya karanam.

न च  भूतस्थः –not dwelling in them. The dreamer is the supporter of the dream world. The dream has no independent existence from the dreamer. Similarly the world has no independent existence from the Lord. The Lord does not dwell in the world or is supported by the world. The Lord is independent of the world. He is immanent and transcendent.

भूतभावनः – The Lord is the efficient cause of the world. स्रष्टिकर्ता creator of the world.  The Lord is  स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारण. During dissolution he swallows everything including the time and space.

The Lord introduces here his fourth feature in the 5th verse.  स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारण – he is the efficient cause of creation, sustenance and dissolution. In the 4th Shloka, he has already mentioned about his three natures as:

अव्यक्तः I am the formless, attributeless consciousness,

सर्वगतः I am all-pervading

जगत् अधिष्टानम् I am the supporter of the universe

स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारण – I am the efficient cause of creation, sustenance and dissolution.

Verse 9: 06

Just as the air, which is born from the space and exists in space,

all beings are born from me and exist in me

यथाकाशस्थितो नित्यं वायुः सर्वत्रगो महान् ।

तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानीत्युपधारय ॥९:६॥

yathākāśasthitō nityaṁ vāyuḥ sarvatragō mahān |

tathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni matsthānītyupadhāraya ||9:6||

यथा आकाशस्थितः नित्यम् वायुः सर्वत्रगः महान् ।

तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानी इति उपधारय ॥

यथा –just as आकाशस्थितः –present in space नित्यम् ever वायुः –the air सर्वत्रगः –moving everywhere महान् –mighty तथा-even so सर्वाणि -all भूतानि-beings मत्स्थानि –rest in me इति -thus उपधारय –know

Just as the air (being born of space), moves freely in the

infinite space, and  exists in the space, likewise know that all beings (who are born from my thought), abide in me.


In this verse Krishna introduces the fifth feature of the infinite spirit which is असन्गत्वम्  or unsullied nature. In the

previous verse the Lord stated that all beings arise and dwell in his unmanifest aspect. Does the Lord become affected by  and attached to the multitudes of things he supports and

sustains? Suppose I am carrying a bottle of perfume which spills over my body, then I smell of the perfume. Similarly, if I carry a can of grease and spills over me,  my dress may get sullied.  But, How does God remain free from attachments in spite of creating and sustaining the universe? To explain this phenomenon of his unsullied nature the Lord gives a similie.


Air springs forth from the space. The space is subtler than air. The space is unattached to the air, that means air cannot

alter, or pollute the space. But the space is the supporter and sustainer of air. Nothing can contain the space although it provides accommodation for everything.  Similarly, the unmanifest Lord is the supporter and sustainer of all sentient and insentient beings. He is unattached to their origin, life or destruction. Yet he is the substratum on which everything rests. But he is not affected by the quality of the beings

abiding in him.  He is beyond and above qualities.

यथा आकाशस्थितः वायुः नित्यम् सर्वत्रगः महान् –just as the mighty air ever moving every where is abiding in the space. In this verse the lord compares the space to himself, the unmanifest formless spirit. Like the space, God is uniform, formless,

actionless, infinite, un-attached and immutable. He compares the air to the multitude of beings of the world which are

subject to birth and death. Just as  the air springs forth from the space, all beings, take birth, grow and die in God. The air arises from the space, remains and moves in the space, and can never remain apart from it. So God is स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारणम्.

The space is the cause and air is the effect. Space  is the

substratum for air in which it blows every where. It blows like a cool breeze. It may become a tempest and cause destruction. But the space is unaffected by action and consequences of such action of air.  

तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानि इति उपधारय –Similarly know that all the beings sentient and insentient abide in me. The whole multitude of beings exist in God, and yet God is entirely beyond these beings and always wholly immune from all sorts of changes.

In the verses 6 and 7 the lord explains his unmanifest aspect. The Lord introduces his fifth feature viz., unsullied nature असन्गत्वम् 

Verse 9: 07

I am the cause of creation, sustenance and dissolution of the world

सर्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम् ।

कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजाम्यहम् ॥९:७॥

sarvabhūtāni kauntēya prakr̥tiṁ yānti māmikām |

kalpakṣayē punastāni kalpādau visr̥jāmyaham ||9:7||

सर्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिम् यान्ति मामिकाम् ।

कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजामि अहम् ॥ 

सर्वभूतानि all beings कौन्तेय –son of Kunti, Arjuna प्रकृतिम् -prakriti unmanifest form यान्ति –enter मामिकाम् –my कल्पक्षये –during the final dissolution पुनः –again तानि –them कल्पादौ –at the beginning of creation विसृजामि –send forth अहम् -I  

At the end of a cycle (kalpa), O Son of Kunti (Arjuna), all

beings return to my nature (the primal cause). At the beginging of the next cycle, again I cast them forth.


In the 5th verse the Lord touched upon the subject of creation which he is continuing in the 6 and 7th verses. स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारणम्. He is the efficient cause of creation, sustenance and dissolution.

Prakruti is acombination of three gunas namely sattva, rajas and tamas. At the end of a kalpa, during dissolution,  the phenominal world merges into the Lord in the form of praruti. It is like the waves of the ocean. They rise in the ocean, stay in the ocdean and ultimately merge into the ocean. Several dissolutions have taken place and several will take place again. The phenominal world is preserved by the nature in a seed form and released at the end of dissolution.


सर्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिम् यान्ति मामिकाम् –O Son of Kunti, all beings return to my primordeal nature (प्रक्रति), It is the

un-manifestated state of nature at the end of the kalpa or cycle. It is the primal cause, or Primordial nature of the universe. This has been referred to as ‘Mahad-brahma’ in verses 3 and 4 of chaper 14. It is also called ‘Pradhana’, or undifferentialted matter. By calling it as  मामिकाम्  (mine) the Lord indicates that his prakriti is his own aspect. In other words, the creation was already in the God in a potential form.  During the final dissolution, all embodied beings including their body, senses, mind, intellect, get dissolved into his potential form or  prakrati. In other words they return to the primordial nature along with the causal body and vasanas.

कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजामि अहम् ॥ 

कल्पक्षये –during the final dissolution. The puranas explain that one yuga is 42, 20, 000 years. 4 such yugas make one day time for Brahmaji. Night is also of equal duration.  That makes one ay of him. His one year has 365 days. His life span is 100 such years.  The end of his life marks kalpakshaya.  This is one day for Brahmaji. One night also has 42,20,000 ears. Then mahapralaya takes place.

In verse 6 of chapter 7, the lord says the entire creation disappears into him. But in this verse he says the entire creation merges with prakrati. Is this a contradiction? Prakrati is God’s own energy or power. So It can never be separated from God. Threfore God calls it as मामिकाम् my own. So dissolution into Prakrati or God is the same.

पुनः कल्पादौ तानि विसृजामि अहम् –at the beginning of the next cycle or kalpa, a desire arises in God for evolving a new creation so as to enable the jivas to work out their respective karmas. This point of time is called  ‘kalpadi’ or the beginning of the creation, or commensesement of ‘Mahasarga’.

Verse 09:08

With the help of my prakruti I discharge them again and again.

They  are subject to laws of prakruti

प्रकृतिं स्वामवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।

भूतग्राममिमं कृत्स्नमवशं प्रकृतेर्वशात् ॥९ :८॥

prakr̥tiṁ svāmavaṣṭabhya visr̥jāmi punaḥ punaḥ |

bhūtagrāmamimaṁ kr̥tsnamavaśaṁ prakr̥tērvaśāt ||9 :8||

प्रकृतिम् स्वाम् अवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।

भूतग्रामम् इमम् कृत्स्नम् अवशम् प्रकृतेः वशात् ॥ 


प्रकृतिम् –Prakriti (nature) स्वाम् –my own अवष्टभ्य –my own emanation (to give life, to cause to come alive) विसृजामि –I release according to their karmas पुनः –again and  पुनः again (eternal- अनन्त) भूतग्रामम् –multitude of beings, does not mean  group of villages इमम् -this कृत्स्नम् –all, in its entirity अवशम् –helpless beings प्रकृतेः –of their own individual nature वशात् –by force


I revive prakrati, my own emanation, and I produce this host of creatures, all subject to laws of prakriti (nature).

प्रकृतिम् स्वाम् अवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।

स्वाम् प्रकृतिम् अवष्टभ्य –With the help of my prakruti, I release the host of creatures . Here Prakrati refers to the primordial nature. In the previous verse the Lord said, “ सर्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम्”, at the end of a cycle (kalpa), all beings return to my nature (the primordeal cause). Here in this verse the Lord says, that he revives  his nature for potential creation . He animates the  prakrati and releases all beings. The Lord has two aspects, the non-vibratory, consciousness and the kinetic animating aspect. At the end of kalpa, the latter becomes active to carry out the process of creation. मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् verse 10

विसृजामि पुनः पुनः I release forth the helpless beings again again. The beings are called helpless because they are

dependent of prakruti .  Creation is a cyclic process but not a lenear process; (having a begining and end). The show must go on. So no question of when the the creation started. It is an illogical question like what happens when a unstopplable bullet hits an  impenetrable wall.

भूतग्रामम्  इमम्  कृत्स्नम् all the helpless beings. That means the totality of beings, both sentient and insentient. For this Lord used the word सर्वभूतानि in the previous verse.

अवशम् प्रकृतेः वशात् –Helpless by the compelling influence of their nature. Here the Prakrati or nature does not refer to the primordeal nature. It stands for the individual nature of these beings, formed out of their gunas, karmas and vasanas. The individual nature of these beings as was obtained at the time of devolution is given back to them in the same packgage.

Verse 09:09

Although I am involved in the creation, maintenance and destruction of the world, I am immune from its karmic bondage. I remain aloof and unattached.

न च मां तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनंजय ।

उदासीनवदासीनमसक्तं तेषु कर्मसु ॥९:९॥

na ca māṁ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṁjaya |

udāsīnavadāsīnamasaktaṁ tēṣu karmasu ||9:9||

न च माम् तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनंजय ।

उदासीनवत् आसीनम् असक्तम् तेषु कर्मसु ॥ ॥

न –not च –and माम् -me (Supreme Spirit) तानि -these कर्माणि –acts निबध्नन्ति –bind धनंजय –O Conqueror of riches, Arjuna उदासीनवत् –like one indifferent आसीनम् –sitting असक्तम् -unattached तेषु –in those कर्मसु –actions धनंजय –O conqueror of riches, Arjuna!


O winner of wealth, Arjuna!, these actions however do not bind me for I remain above them, aloof and unattached.


न च मां तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति –those actions do not bind me. They do not creat any impression or vasanas in me. Which are the actions the Lord refers to? The actions of dissolution, emanation and sustenance. स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कार्य. Why they do not bind him?

उदासीनवत् आसीनम् असक्तम्  तेषु कर्मसु –This is the 6th nature of God explained in the shlokas between 4- 10, He remains like one indifferent and non-attahced in the actions or results. So any karmas do not bring vasanas to him.

Just as a person whose business it is to operate a Ferris Wheel in an amusement park feels no identity with the

personal and emotional involvement with the riders, even so , the master of this rotating Ferris Wheel of creation remains an onlooker and impartial witness. The Lord tells us that the secret by which he participates without involvement in

creation is non-attachment (असन्गत्व). He remains altogether unconcerned (उदासीनवत्) with, and devoid of sense of ownership.

The message the Lord gives us  here is that we can also reach him without our actions creating any new vasanas provided we remain without egoism, unattached and as just a witness, realizing that “all this is God, not I and mine”.

The theme of nature of unmanifest God, is continued from verse 4 to 10. So far the following features are explained:

  1. अव्यक्तः –not available for sense organs free from रूप, रस गन्ध and स्पर्श

2.सर्वगतः –All pervading

  1. जगत् अधिष्टानम् – substratum of material universe.
  2. असन्गत्वम् –not tainted by, sullied by the

impurities of nature

  1. जगत् स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारणम् –Fundamental cause of

creation, sustenance and devolution.

  1. उदासीनवत् आसीनम् असक्तम् -अकर्ता अभोक्ता remains

unconcerned and aloof from the sense of doership.

Verse 09:10

The world revolves in cycles of creation and dissolution in just the presence of God

मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् ।

हेतुनानेन कौन्तेय जगद्विपरिवर्तते ॥९:१०॥

mayādhyakṣēṇa prakr̥tiḥ sūyatē sacarācaram |

hētunānēna kauntēya jagadviparivartatē ||9:10||

मया अध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् ।

हेतुना आनेन कौन्तेय जगत् विपरिवर्तते ॥ 

मया – by me अध्यक्षेण –as supervisor प्रकृतिः apara prakrati , maya,nature सूयते –delivers, begets, projecs सचराचरम् –the moving and the unmoving or stationery  हेतुना –because of  अनेन –by this कौन्तेय –O son of Kunti, Arjuna जगत् –the world विपरिवर्तते –revolves

O Arjuna, under my supervision, prakrati brings forth the whole creation, consisting of both sentient and insentient beings; it is due to this cause that the world revolves in

cycles of creation and dissolution. (the wheel of samsara)


मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् –In my presence or supervision, the prakrati begets the the moving and non-moving beings. Arjuna, I am just a director. in my presence, the prakarti executes the work of creation, sustenance and destruction. Just as a magnet induces the iron ores to move, just my

presence is enough for the prakrati to act. God and nature are indivisible, though diverse like two sides of a coin.

Just in the presence of consciousness, the prakruti sets forth all creative activities. If he is not there everything stops. In a court of law eventhough all the advocates have come, no hearing starts till the judge comes. In Indian constitution, all activities are conducted in the name of President. Similarly, without the presence of Ishwara, the insentient prakruti is lifeless.

In chapter 4 verse 13, the Lord says that he is the author of the four-fold caste system. But in this verse the Lord says that it is prakrti that is responsible for creation. Is there any anomoly between his statements? The verse referred to is quoted below:

चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः।

तस्य कर्तारमपि मां विद्ध्यकर्तारमव्ययम् ॥४:१३॥

The fourfold -caste has been created by Me, according to the differentiation of guna and karma; though I am the author thereof know that I am ever actionless and unchanging.


There is no contradiction. In 09:10 the Lord says that Prakrati brings forth entire universe not by itself but under his supervision. Prakrati being inert it cannot bring forth creation. Therefore in Gita whenever the Lord says that Prakrati brings forth sentient and insentient world, it should be understood that it happerns right under his presence. Similarly,  where he speaks God as the creator, it means that he creates universe not directly but through his Prakrati.

हेतुनानेन कौन्तेय जगद्विपरिवर्तते – It is due to this cause O !

Arjuna, the world revoles. The relationship between the

actionless self and active not-self (Prakrati) has been brought out by several analogies. The sun in the sky remaining

stationery, warms up the objects and sets up a lot of

activities. Similarly the self remains in its infinite glory and the not- self gets dynamised to act as prakrati in the mere presence of self.

In short, the transcendental spirit’s supervision and the

Cosmic Mother’s doership are responsible for all such activities like creation, sustainance and dissolution. They do not exist as separate, both are different phases of the same coin. The motionless prakrati, animated by the mere presence of the supreme spirit, creates the mischief and all good in the creation.

In verse 8 of this chapter the lord says,

प्रकृतिं स्वामवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः।

भूतग्राममिमं कृत्स्नमवशं प्रकृतेर्वशात्॥९:८॥

Revivingmy own promordeal prakrati, I I release the them again and again.

However in the  present verse he says, “With me as

supervisor, the nature evolves the universe”. Is there a contradiction? No. Nature cannot do anything without the

backing of God. She derives her existence and activity from him. So ultimately it is God who is the creator and dissolver. Simlarly in the prsesce of the absolute consciousness the eyes start seeing, the senses can comprehend, the blood

circulates and so on.

Verse 09:11

The ignorant people cannot realize my avatar

  1. Cause of bondage ……………………………….. 11-13

Verse 11-12 people with abundance of Rajas and tamas

Verse 13 people with Sattva.

अवजानन्ति मां मूढा मानुषीं तनुमाश्रितम् ।

परं भावमजानन्तो मम भूतमहेश्वरम् ॥९:११॥

avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanumāśritam |

paraṁ bhāvamajānantō mama bhūtamahēśvaram ||9:11||

अवजानन्ति माम् मूढाः मानुषीम् तनुमाश्रितम् ।

परम् भावम् अजानन्तः मम भूतमहेश्वरम् ॥९:११॥

अवजानन्ति not knowing माम् me  मूढाः the fools मानुषीम् -human तनुम् -form आश्रितम् –having assumed my personal lower form like Krishna, Ganapati etc. finite forms  परम् –supreme भावम् –nature, my higher chaitanya nirguna swaroopa अजानन्तः –not knowing मम –mine भूतमहेश्वरम् –the great Lord of beings

The ignorant, oblivious of my transcendental nature as Lord, as creator of all beings, discount also my presence within the human form.


अवजानन्ति माम् मूढाः मानुषीम् तनुमाश्रितम् ।

The stupid do not recognize my transcendental nature. They take me for an ordinary mortal. The word मूढाः the fools has been explained in the next verse. It is used several times in Gita. In verse 07:15, the Lord gives a definition of them. Here is the shloka

न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः ।

माययापहृतज्ञानाः आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ॥७ -१५॥

“They are the wrong doers, lowest of the men, possed of fiendish and demonical nature”.

Again in the verses 7 to 20 of chapter 16 the Lord describes their nature extensively.

परम् भावम् अजानन्तः मम भूतमहेश्वरम् –not knowing the

inharent supreme glory of the lord which has been described in verses 4-10 in as the nature of God

In verse 24 of chapter 7, the Lord describes such unwise people as screened from knowledge.

अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः।

परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ॥७:२४॥

“The foolish think me, the unmanfest, as having come to manifestation, not knowing my higher, immutable and peerless nature.”

When the Lord takes avatar of human form, it is very difficult to recognize him.

When Lord Krishna was here on earth, very few people knew his trnscendental nature, and only a few recognized him as the Supreme Being. Even a highly evolved soul such as Yudhishtira was quite surprised to learn from sage Narada that his cousin Krishna is the supreme Being in human form.

Ramakrishan Paramahamsa was in his flower garden. A visitor thought he is a gardener and asked, “Hey can you give me a flower”. Ramakrishan readily gave him one flower and went back to his quarters to receive guests. When the visitor came in, he was surprised to see Ramakrishna there” .

Once swami Vivekanada was with Ramakrishna. A doubt arose in his mind whether his Guru is indeed an avatar. Ramakrishna became aware of this doubt in the mind of

Vivekananda and exclaimed, Do you still dout it?”

Only a mind which has gone to the higher level of Brahma consciousness can become aware of the avatar stage. Just as only a dimond merchant can evaluate a dimond.

The present and next shlolka refer to people with an overabundance of Tamas and Rajasik qualities. In stanza 13, the Lord mentions about the third guna, the sattva or wisdom.

Verse 09:12

Characteristics of perverted people

  1. Differenct types of people who worship God: 12 to 19

Saguna and Nirguna aspect of God ……………………… 12 to15

identity with the total universe …………………………… 16 to19

मोघाशा मोघकर्माणो मोघज्ञाना विचेतसः ।

राक्षसीमासुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः ॥९:१२॥

mōghāśā mōghakarmāṇō mōghajñānā vicētasaḥ |

rākṣasīmāsurīṁ caiva prakr̥tiṁ mōhinīṁ śritāḥ ||9:12||

मोघाशाः मोघकर्माणः मोघज्ञानाः विचेतसः ।

राक्षसीम् आसुरीम् च एव प्रकृतिम् मोहिनम् श्रिताः ॥  मोघाशाः – cherishing vain hopes मोघकर्माणः –induging in futile persuits  मोघज्ञानाः –possessing fruitless  knowledge विचेतसः –senseless, deranged mind राक्षसीम् -fiendish आसुरीम् –demoniac , devilish च –and एव -verily प्रकृतिम् –nature मोहिनीम् –delusive श्रिताः –are possed of

Men cherishig  vain hopes, indulging in futile activities, and possessing fruitless knowledge, possess the deluded nature of fiends and demons.


मोघाशाः मोघकर्माणः मोघज्ञानाः विचेतसः Men cherishing vain hopes, indulging in futile actions, senseless ideas.

These are the charecteristics of a stupid person with

preponderance of rajas and tamas.  Mogha means futile, व्यर्थ

मोघाशाः – cherishing vain desires. Everything impermanent is mistaken as permanent. Things like excessive accumulation of money, power, indulgence in pleasures which cannot be satiated by possessing and enjoying them.

मोघकर्माणः –Entertaining actions to accomplish the vain

desires. Those activities in the form of sacrificial performance, charity and austere penance etc in order to get name and social status are also futile, because after so much of endeavour they get only temporary fruits in the heaven. Had they done this action without self-pompted desires their mind would have achieved antahkarana Shuddhi which is the primary means for realization.

A  human activity has three stages. जानाति, इच्छति, यतते. जानाति is understaning,  acquiring knowledge (ज्ञानशक्ति). Then one has to desire to accomplish a goal (इच्छाशक्ति). Then comes the third activity, one has to try to accomplish the goal (क्रियाशति).

मोघज्ञानाः Futile knowledge. They have all material knowledge but not the knowledge of God’s glory. Even if they have, they do not make use of it for God Realization. They use it for

impressing the people or for earning wealth. They use the knowledge for sensual pleasures or material benefit. Such knowledge is called in viveka chudamani as तद् भुक्तयॆ; नतु मुक्तयॆ, for the purpose of material benefit but not for realisation.

विचेतसः –distracted, perverted. They turn away from what is proper, right or good. They are debased.  There are three types of perverts. राक्षसी आसुरी मोहिनम् श्रिताः 

राक्षसी विचेतसः They have no pity or comapassion for the people. They feel happy at the difficulties and pain suffeed by others. They indulge in smuggling, corruption, and mayhem.

आसुरी विचेतसः Lust and greed are their hallmark. Their aim is hoarding, sex, sleaze and carnal pleasure.

मोहिनी स्वभाव morbid sensual gratification , immoral

activities, binge drinking, meat eating, and gambling.

These three kinds of men destroy their life themselves.

They are like eagles. They fly at a very great height no doubt, but their aim is dead bodies

राक्षसीम्  प्रक्रतिम् श्रिताः – demonic nature is  raga (attachment) and  kama (desire). All their activities are desire or attachment  prompted. In order to accomplish the goal they do not hesitate to use illegal and immoral methods.  If unsuccessful these two emotions turn into greed (daha) and dwesha or hatred. They want to get rid of any one who comes in the way of their goal. Such people are called of demonic disposition. Shankara says in Viveka chudamani that devilish people also perform religious rites but they do not have pity, truthfullness, and internal and external cleanliness.

आसुरीम्  प्रक्रतिम् श्रिताः –given to fiendish nature. They have lust for objects and try to achieve selfish end at any cost. Men who have no knowledge of glory of God generally do so. They indulge in prohibited acts and illegal activities

मोहिनीम् प्रक्रतिम् श्रिताः –are possed of or given to delusive nature. Moha means misunderstanding. It is a compulsive

character where one distorts the actual meaning. They are deluded by wrong desires and come to posses confused mind and confounded reasoning. As the Lord says in Gita they end up in बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति their intellect tries to justify the

action and eventually they loose decision making power and discretion.

The present and previous shloka refer to people with an overabundance of Tamas and Rajasik qualities. In stanza 13, the Lord mentions about the third guna, the sattva or wisdom.

In verses No. 12 to 19 the Lord gives various types of people who approach the problem differently.

Verse 09:13

Men of divine quality  pray me with exlusive bhakti and realize

 me as immutable and creator of all beings

महात्मानस्तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिमाश्रिताः ।

भजन्त्यनन्यमनसो ज्ञात्वा भूतादिमव्ययम् ॥९:१३॥

mahātmānastu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakr̥timāśritāḥ |

bhajantyananyamanasō jñātvā bhūtādimavyayam ||9:13||

महात्मानः तु माम् पार्थ दैवीम् प्रकृतिम् आश्रिताः ।

भजंति अनन्यमनसः ज्ञात्वा भूतादिम् अव्ययम् ॥  

तु –On the other hand पार्थ –Son of Pritha O Arjuna महात्मानः –the great souls, merited and satvic men माम् ज्ञात्वा –having known me, as the prime source or  cause of all being, the causeless cause, immortal  दैवीम् –divine प्रकृतिम् –nature आश्रिताः –having embraced  भजन्ति –worship अनन्यमनसः –with none else in the mind भूतादिम् –the source of beings अव्ययम् –imperishable, eternal

On the other hand O son of Pritha, Arjuna, Mahatmas (great souls) who possess divine qualities know me as immutable, as the material and efficient cause of creation, and worship me single-mindedly with loving devotion.

The Lord describes the various forms of woship of both his saguna and nirguna aspects in verse 12 to 15 and his identity with the total universe in verses 16 to 19.

महात्मानः तु माम् पार्थ दैवीम् प्रकृतिम् आश्रिताः ।

However, the great souls, who have divine qualities-

तु –On the other hand. This indeclinable तु shows the contrast between the people of demonic and daivik disposition. It shows a change in subject.

महात्मानः –great souls. Here आत्म means अन्तःकरण. An account of the worship of the Lord through several births they are free from desire and attachment.  

दैवीम् प्रकृतिम् आश्रिताः – They have a disposition to दैवीप्रक्रति as mentioned in 16: 01-03.

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धि र्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।

दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥१६:१॥


अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम्।

दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥१६:२॥


तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता।

 भवन्ति संपदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥१६:३॥

They are endowed with vairagya, shama, dama titiksha and uparati. The are free from the binding delusions of rajas and tamas and see God in all beings and so remain in constant proximity with him.

भजंति अनन्यमनसः ज्ञात्वा भूतादिम् अव्ययम् ॥  

know me as immutable, as the material and efficient cause of creation, and worship me single-mindedly with loving


भजन्ति माम् अनन्यमनसः – अव्यभिचरिणी भक्तिः

They worship me with none else in the mind. It is an exclusive devotion. His mind does not get attracted by anything other than God. माम्  indicates God with attributes or Purushottama (Supreme person). It is God with attributes who is responsible for creation, maintenance and destruction of all senient and insentient beings.

ज्ञात्वा भूतादिम् अव्ययम् –Knowing me as immutable and prime source of all beings; knowing me as the  material and efficient cause, knowing me as unborn and imperishable.  They recognize me as the truth and the prime source of all life.  They know that I do not perish even as the whole cosmos is dissolved.

Verse 09:14

The Lord sets out six types of discipline for the devotees to attain rdealization of self

सततं कीर्तयन्तो मां यतन्तश्च दृढव्रताः ।

नमस्यन्तश्च मां भक्त्या नित्ययुक्ता उपासते ॥९:१४॥

satataṁ kīrtayantō māṁ yatantaśca dr̥ḍhavratāḥ |

namasyantaśca māṁ bhaktyā nityayuktā upāsatē ||9:14||

सततम् कीर्तयन्तः माम्  यतन्तः च दृढव्रताः ।

नमस्यन्तः च माम्  भक्त्या नित्ययुक्ताः उपासते ॥ 

सततम् –constantly  कीर्तयन्तः chanting my names and glories  माम् –me यतन्तः –striving,  making effort for my realization च -and दृढव्रताः – firm in resolve that I want to attain Moksha नमस्यन्तः –prostrating च -and माम् –me भक्त्या –with devotion नित्ययुक्ताः –ever united with me  उपासते –worship

Constantly chanting my names and glories, and striving for my realization, prostrating to me, fixed and resolute in their high aspirations, the mahatmas worship me with single minded devotion.


सततम् कीर्तयन्तः माम्  यतन्तः च दृढव्रताः ।

Constantly chanting my name, trying to get me, resolutely.

सततम् –constantly. It denotes continuity of practice.

कीर्तयन्तः the मुमुक्षुः chanting my names and glories . The

devotees chant the multiple names of God in the form of japa, song and psalm. Often such an activity is accompanied by musical instruments, dance, pilgrimage etc.   

यतन्तः –striving (for my realization) by the above methods.  Attempt has to be done continuously not fearing any intial set back. Ramakrishna gives the example of new born calf. It tries to stand up but falls several time. Ultimately it becomes successful.

दृढव्रताः –the devotees firm in resolve  to achieve me. They are not put off by failure to progress or by others’ comments. They are firm in their decision to reach me.

माम् भक्त्या नमस्यन्तः –prostrating before me again and again with faith and love. This can be done in the puja room, in a temple, shrine, or offering salutations to sacred books.

नित्ययुक्ताः उपासते – the मुमुक्षु  is ever disciplined, worships ever united with me. He does not let go of a single minute not remembering God. He thinks of God’s glory, mystery and sport in his subconscious mind even as he does all outside activities.

माम् –‘Me’ this refers to the God with attributes the supreme purusha or Ishwara

Verse 09:15

The devotees  approach me through jnyanayoga or devotion to universal form

ज्ञानयज्ञेन चाप्यन्ये यजन्तो मामुपासते ।

एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् ॥९:१५॥

jñānayajñēna cāpyanyē yajantō māmupāsatē |

ēkatvēna pr̥thaktvēna bahudhā viśvatōmukham ||9:15||

ज्ञानयज्ञेन च अपि अन्ये यजन्तः माम् उपासते ।

एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् ॥ 

ज्ञानयज्ञेन –those who tread the path of knowledge viz., 

jnayana yoga, see God as aroopa ishwhara च –and अपि -also अन्ये others यजन्तः sacrificing माम् -me (in my absolute formless state उपासते -worship एकत्वेन –as the non- dual ultimate Brahman, aroopa Iswara  form by Jnyana yajna च –and अपि -also अन्ये others पृथक्त्वेन –through diversity (seeing me in diverse celestial forms) बहुधा –in various ways विश्वतोमुखम् –worship me in a cosmic or universal form facing all sides, aneka roopa Ishwara multifarious form.

Others who follow the path of jnyana yajnya (knowledge), worship me in my absolute formless form (advaita), or as overlord (dvaita), while still others worship me in my universal form in many ways,  as a cosmic bodied lord


ज्ञानयज्ञेन च अपि अन्ये यजन्तः माम् उपासते ।

The previous shloka described about bhakti or devotion as a means of reaching out to God. In this verse, jnyana or knowledge is described as the principle source of communion to God. Krishna says, some devotees reach me by

Jyanayajnya, that means offering knowledge as oblation in the fire of wisdom. Yajna is a religious rite, where several priests and the family of the sponsor offer oblations to the lord. But this yajnya is no fire rite. It is only a simili. The knowledge of unity of Brahman and jiva is offered to the fire of wisdom. अहम् ब्रह्मास्मि is the knowledge.  एकत्वेन -Worship me as the non-dual absolute spirit, without any form or attributes and as chaitanya.

 A jnyana yogi  believes that  the activities carried on by the body, mind, senses are nothing but an expression of the gunas acting on the gunas themselves. He has no stake in that. He is not the doer of the activities nor enjoyer of it. He refuses to recognize anything other than absolute formless Brahman or God as reality. All other things for him is mithya or maya. This is called Jnyana yajna. Jynayajnya is the same as jnyana yoga discussed in verse 3 of chapter 3. The verse is quoted below:

लोकेsस्मिन्द्विधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ ।

ज्ञानयोगेन साङ्ख्यानां  कर्मयोगेन योगिनां ॥३ -०३॥

च अपि अन्ये पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विष्वतोमुखम् –still others worship me in my universal form as many.

The space is the body of the Lord, the earth his feet, and the celestial bodies are his limbs. The moon, the sun, the five elements are the myriads of manifestations of the divine Lord. All sentient and insentient beings are manifestations of his glory. There is nothing other than God and the seeker serves them as his duty in a selfless spirit.

Ramakrishna once said to Vivekananda, “Look god is a tank of  elixir. Suppose you are a fly and want to  drink it, how do you partake it. Vivekananda said, “I will sit at the edge and seep the elixir.” “Don’t want to dip into it?” “No” said Vivekananda, if I enter it I may be drowned and killed”. The swami said, “My son, God is an elixir. If you enter it, you will not be drowned and killed. You become immortal.

Verse 09:16

The Lord explains that he is the cause and the world is the effect.

 So, he pervades everything in the world

विश्वरूप वर्णनम्  Universal form of God –  16-19

अहं क्रतुरहं यज्ञः स्वधाहमहमौषधम् ।

मन्त्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहं हुतम् ॥९:१६॥

ahaṁ kraturahaṁ yajñaḥ svadhāhamahamauṣadham |

mantrō’hamahamēvājyamahamagnirahaṁ hutam ||9:16||

अहम् क्रतुः अहम् यज्ञः स्वधा अहम् अहम् औषधम् ।

मन्त्रः अहम् अहम् एव आज्यम् अहम् अग्निः अहम्  हुतम् ॥

क्रतुः –the vedic ritual (Shrouta karma)  अहम् –I am यज्ञः –the sacrifice (smartha karma) अहम्–I am I स्वधा –the offering of manes to the departed  ancestors अहम्–I am औषधम् –medicinal herbs and plants, अहम्–I am मन्त्रः –sacred hymns अहम्–I am एव -also आज्यम् –ghee offered in yajna अहम्–I am अग्निः –the fire the messenger God through whom offering is sent अहम्–I am हुतम् –the offering carried by agni अहम्–I am

I am the rite, the sacrifice, the oblation to the ancestors, the medicinal herbs, the holy chant, the melted butter, the

sacred fire, and the offering as well.

Continuing his argument of अन्ये पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् from the previous stanza the Lord gives a list of eight articles and says all of them constitute his being, अहम्. These eight sample articles can be put into four groups.

They are: . कर्ता, the subject क्रिया the perfomance उपकरण the tools फल the reward. “All these are my own aspects”, the Lord says.  

  1. कर्ता the subject -The sponsor of yajna and क्रतुः, the

vedic ritual, are the subjects of Yajna. All these are me. The object  यज्ञः the sacrifice which includes the fire is also nothing but God.

  1. क्रिया the performance क्रिया includes the actual performance reciting holy mantras. This is also God.
  2. उपकरण the tools. उपकरण includes the peripherals needed for the performance of yajna such as ghee (आज्यम्) and medicinal herbs (औषधम्), offereing to the manes in

funerals (स्वधा) which are again God. The mantra is also God.

  1. फल the reward of yajna is also God.

So, the subject, object, tools and the reward are all God. That is why in verse 24 of chapter 4 Krishna says:

ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम्।

ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना॥४:२४॥

“Brahma is the ladle (with which oblation is poured into the fire); the oblation itself is Brahma, the fire, the sacrificer, the act of pouring oblation into the fire –all constitute Brahma. Finally Brahma is the goal to be reached by a practitioner who is absordbed in Brahma as an act of sacrifice.”


सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म All this is verily Brahma — Chandogya


Verse 09:17

I am creator, sustainer of world. I am the parents and grand parents

of the world. I am the object of knowledge, the purifier, Om and three vedas

पिताहमस्य जगतो माता धाता पितामहः ।

वेद्यं पवित्रमोंकार ऋक्साम यजुरेव च ॥९:१७॥

pitāhamasya jagatō mātā dhātā pitāmahaḥ |

vēdyaṁ pavitramōṁkāra r̥ksāma yajurēva ca ||9:17||

पिता अहम् अस्य जगतः माता धाता पितामहः ।

वेद्यम् पवित्रम् ओंकार ऋक् साम यजुः एव च  ॥  

पिता –father अहम् -I अस्य -this जगतः -world माता -mother धाता –the dispenser of the fruits of action or karma. Karmaphala data पितामहः –grandfather वेद्यम् –that thing to be known, Jneyam पवित्रम् –the greatest purifier (पावयति इति पवित्रम्) ओंकारः –the sacred syllable Om ऋक् -Rig-Veda साम -Samaveda यजुः -Yajurveda एव –also च –and

I am the sustainer and ruler of this universe, its father, mother, grandfather, the object of knowledge, the sanctifier, the sacred syllable Om, and the three Vedas- Ruk, Sama and Yajur.


पिता अहम् अस्य जगतः माता धाता पितामहः ।

I am the creator, sustainer, and Lord of this universe, and its father, mother, grandfather

जगतः –the world includes both the sentient and insentient beings. The whole of this has emanated from God.

माता  पिता–the mother, father. The unmanifest spirit is the supreme cause and the world is the effect. That means the whole world emanated from him. So he calls himself its mother and father. He is the father and mother of the universe. That is why Kalidasa calls him जगतः पितरौ वंदे पार्वती परमेश्वरौ .

पितामहः –He is the grandfather of this universe because he is the precursor of brahmaa whose job it is to create the world. So, he becomes the grandfather.

धाता –the sustainer and dispenser of the fruits of action. Just as the rope is the substratum for the misconception of a snake, the Lord is the substratum for all the names and forms of the universe. So he is called धाता.  He  is the progenerator or Hiranyagarbha who awards to each the fruit of his action, he also known as the dhata or dispenser.

वेद्यम् पवित्रम् ओंकार ऋक् साम यजुः एव च  –what is to be known or the object of knowledge. The objective world of names and forms can be perceived through the senses. The subjective self can be experienced  by internalization and meditation. It is called ज्ञेयम् in chapter 13.

पवित्रम्पावयति इति पवित्रम्- purifier or the agents of purification. The unmanifested spirit is supremely holy and the very sight, talk with him, and mere thought of him sanctifies a person. The purifying agents like the sun, fire, air, water,

sacred texts, holy places, mantras, austerities etc are nothing but manifestations of God.

ओंकारः –the sacred syllable Om, which represents para and apara Brahma or God. It is the condensed veda.

ऋक् साम यजुः एव च –I am the three Vedas. Vedas have been revealed by God and our knowledge of God is derived from them. So the Lord declares the three Vedas are identical with him.

Verse 09:18

The nature of god

गतिर्भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणं सुहृत् ।

प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानं निधानं बीजमव्ययम् ॥९:१८॥

gatirbhartā prabhuḥ sākṣī nivāsaḥ śaraṇaṁ suhr̥t |

prabhavaḥ pralayaḥ sthānaṁ nidhānaṁ bījamavyayam ||9:18||

गतिः भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणम् सुहृत् ।

प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानम् निधानम् बीजम् अव्ययम् ॥

गतिः –the goal भर्ता –the supporter प्रभुः –the lord साक्षी –the witness निवासः –the abode शरणम् –the refuge  सुहृत् –the friend  प्रभवः –the origin प्रलयः –the dissolution स्थानम् –resting place  निधानम् – the cosmic Storehouse बीजम् –the seed अव्ययम् –imperishable

I am the goal, supporter, master, witness, abode, refuge, friend. I am the origin, the dissolution, resting place, the cosmic store-house (to which all beings return), and imperishable seed.


गतिः भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणम् सुहृत् ।

गतिः –is the goal. There are two types of goals; the heaven with the material objects obtained as a reward from rites or karmas.  पदम् अव्ययम् and the realization of formless spirit by persuit of knowledge. “I am both goals”, the Lord says.

भर्ता –the supporter, “I am the supporter and protector of the whole world. The earth supports the sentient and insentient beings. Water supports the earth. Fire supports water. In turn, fire is supported by air; the latter by space. Prakrati supports the space. I am the supporter of Prakrati. So, I am the supporter of the entire cosmos”.

प्रभुः –the lord, the ruler. All the material and celestial objects are under the rule and control of God. They have been

assigned a property which they faithfully carry out due to the fear of God. The sun, moon, the earth are revolving in their assigned positions. The magnetic property, gravitational property, etc are governed by God. The intrinsic property of fire to burn and give heat, of electricity to give shock is the rules laid down by God.

साक्षी –the witness. God is the  knower and seer of all beings and all their doings–good or bad at all the periods of time (past-present-future). He is called a witness because he is just watching all the events without any involvement in its

happenings, without any attachment or aversion.

निवासः –the abode, a place where one can live. Just as all the ornaments virtually live in gold, the abode all the sentient and insentient beings is God.

शरणम् –the refuge in whose presence our problem is solved.

सुहृत् –the friend who does good to others naturally and

gratuitously without expecting any return. He helps an

unknown person without expecting any return or प्रत्युपकार् E.g. The sun, cloud, the air. “I am the suhrut of all”. He is a good Samaritan.

प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानम् निधानम् बीजम् अव्ययम् ॥

प्रभवः –I am the cause of the cosmos; but I am never born. स्रष्टि कारणम्,

प्रलयः –I am the cause the dissolution of the universe; but I am never dissolved लय कारणम्

स्थानम् –I am the resting place for all स्थिति कारणम्

निधानम् –the cosmic Storehouse, where all cosmic blue-prints are stored safely during the kalpas of dissolution.

अव्ययम् –imperishable बीजम् –the seed. And at the beginning of the great kalpas of manifestation it is He as the imperishable seed that fertilizes the prakrati and germinates her.

The Lord uses the word अहम् ‘I am’, with every object in verse 16, but only once in verse 17 but none in the present verse. So the word अहम् should be held as connected to this verse as well.

Verse 09:19

I am ‘sat’ as well as ‘asat’

तपाम्यहमहं वर्षं निगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामि च ।

अमृतं चैव मृत्युश्च सदसच्चाहमर्जुन ॥९:१९॥

tapāmyahamahaṁ varṣaṁ nigr̥hṇāmyutsr̥jāmi ca |

amr̥taṁ caiva mr̥tyuśca sadasaccāhamarjuna ||9:19||

तपामि अहम् अहम् वर्षम् निगृह्णामि उत्सृजामि च ।

अमृतम् च एव मृत्युः च सत् असत् च अहम् अर्जुन ॥ 

तपामि –give heat, cause of existence of sun अहम् –I वर्षम् –the rain निग्र्ह्णामि -absorb उत्सृजामि –send forth च –and अमृतम् –immortality, survival of beings च –and एव -also मृत्युः –the death च –and सत् –existence, manifest creation असत् –non-existence unmanifest creation च -and अहम् -I अर्जुन –Arjuna

O Arjuna, I give heat (as the sun); I give and withhold the rain; I am the immortality as well as the death; I am the

being (sat) as well as the non-being (asat).

तपामि अहम् अहम् वर्षम् निगृह्णामि उत्सृजामि च ।

तपामि अहम् – As the sun, I give heat. As a corollary it should be understood I give cold.

अहम् वर्षम् निग्र्ह्णामि उत्सृजामि –I give  rain. I also withhold the rain. The sun imparts through his rays the heat and light. He also evoperates water vapour from the ocean and other water bodies, holds it in the atmosphere and at appropriate time precipitates the cloud. The sun is God’s own self.

अमृतम् अहम्  -I am immortality. Amruta is the celestial nectar partaken by the Gods. Immortality is God’s own self.

अहम् मृत्युः I am the death, the principle of destruction of the individual and cosmos. God is both creation and destruction. In verse 32 of chapter 11,  the lord says,”I am the inflamed Kaala (God of Time), the destroyer of the worlds”

कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो लोकान्समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः  ||११:३२||

अहम् सत् असत् –I am the existence and non-existence. The imperishable self which never ceases to be, is known as ‘sat’ (Being) and all that is perishable and temporal goes by the name ‘asat’ (non-being). Verse 16 of chapter 2 describes sat and asat as under:

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः

उभयोरपि दृष्टः अन्तः अनयोः तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ||२; १६ ||

The unreal has no existence, and the real never ceases to be; the reality of both has thus been perceived by the seers.


It is these two categories of sat and asat that have been

referred to as ‘Akshara and Kshara Purusha’ or the imperishable and perishable entities in chapter 15 Verse 16. He says:

द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च।

क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ॥१५:१६॥


There are two kinds of Purushas in this world, the perishable and imperishable. Of these, the physical bodies of all beings is called Perishable purusha and the jivatma or kutashtha is called imperishable Purusha.


It is these two enities again, which constitute the para and apara prakratis or the higher and lower nature of God.

Therefore the lord declares that he is sat and asat.

The Lord describes the various forms of woship of both his saguna and nirguna aspects in verse 13 to 15 and his identity with the total universe in verses 16 o 19.

Swami Ramakrishna says:, It is all the will of Lord. If he says “yes” his wish will be done. If he says “no” nothing can be done.

Verse 09:20

Those who perform rites prescribed  by the three vedas find their way

 to heaven where they enjoy the sensual pleasures.

Reward of sakama and nishkama upasana Verses 20-25

त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा

यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते ।

ते पुण्यमासाद्य सुरेन्द्रलोक –

मश्नन्ति दिव्यान्दिवि देवभोगान् ॥९:२०॥

traividyā māṁ sōmapāḥ pūtapāpā yajñairiṣṭvā svargatiṁ prārthayantē |

tē puṇyamāsādya surēndralōkamaśnanti divyāndivi dēvabhōgān ||9:20||

त्रैविद्याः माम्  सोमपाः पूतपापाः यज्ञैः इष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिम् प्रार्थयन्ते ।

ते पुण्यम् आसाद्य सुरेन्द्रलोकम् अश्नन्ति दिव्यान् दिवि  देवभोगान् ॥ 

त्रैविद्याः –the knowers of the three Vedas माम् me सोमपाः –the drinkers of soma पूतपापाः –purified from sin यज्ञैः –by sacrifices इष्ट्वा –worshipping स्वर्गतिम् –way to heaven प्रार्थयन्ते –pray ते -they पुण्यम् -merits आसाद्य –having reached सुरेन्द्रलोकम् –the world of Indra अश्नन्ति –eat (enjoy) दिव्यान् -divine दिवि –in heaven देवभोगान् –divine pleasures

Those who perform the rites as prescribed in the three Vedas and drink the sap of Soma plant, purified from sin,

worship me through sacrifices (Yajna), and pray for the way to heaven. As a result of their meritorus deeds they go to the holy kingdom of astral deities, and enjoy in the

paradise, the divine pleasures of gods.


त्रैविद्याः माम्  सोमपाः पूतपापाः यज्ञैः इष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिम् प्रार्थयन्ते ।

त्रैविद्याः –refers to those who are devoted and attached to the  the rites and sacrifices prescribed by the three Vedas and their rewards त्रैविद्या or वेदत्रयि –refers to the here Vedas of Ruk, Sama,Yajus

पूतपापाः –purified from sin by the performance of the rites and partaking of the Soma drink. They take recourse to wine as well as devine.

माम् me, refers to Indra and other celestials who constitute the limbs of God.

यज्ञैः इष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिम् प्रार्थयन्ते – by the performance of their desire prompted rites and sacrifices, they attain heaven.  

ते पुण्यम् आसाद्य सुरेन्द्रलोकम् अश्नन्ति दिव्यान् दिवि देवभोगान्

As a result of their meritorious deeds, they reach the divine kingdom of heaven and enjoy the sensual pleasures. They have to return to mortal world after their share of Punya is exhausted. That means the heavenly abode is not

permanent. Those who follow the trayee dharma (fire rites mentioned in the vedashave to come back to the earth to earn more merits. Their joy is like a paid holiday trip. Once the payment is over you have to exit.

Verse 09:21

After enjoying the kingdom of  heaven the desirers of desire return to the mortal world


ते तं भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकं विशालं

क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्यलोकं विशन्ति ।

एवं त्रयीधर्ममनुप्रपन्ना

गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते ॥९:२१॥

tē taṁ bhuktvā svargalōkaṁ viśālaṁ kṣīṇē puṇyē martyalōkaṁ viśanti |

ēvaṁ trayīdharmamanuprapannā gatāgataṁ kāmakāmā labhantē ||9:21||

ते तम् भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकम् विशालम्

क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्यलोकम् विशन्ति ।

एवम् त्रयीधर्मम् अनुप्रपन्नाः

गतागतम् कामकामाः लभन्ते ॥ 

ते –they तम् –that भुक्त्वा –having enjoyed स्वर्गलोकम् –heaven विशालम् –vast क्षीणे पुण्ये –at the exhaustion of depletion of their good karma मर्त्यलोकम् –the world of mortals विशन्ति –enter एवम् –thus त्रयीधर्मम् –of the three Vedas अनुप्रपन्नाः –abiding by गत आगतम् –the state of going and returning कामकामाः –disiring desires, sensory pleasures लभन्ते –attain

Such beings having enjoyed their extensive heaven-world, return to the mortal world after expiration of their good karma. Thus abiding by the injunctions of the three Vedas, desiring objects of desires, they walk the cyclic path (between heaven and earth).


ते तम् भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकम् विशालम् –They (followers of injunctions of 3 vedas), having enjoyed expansive heaven world. The heavenly world is said to be larger than the mortal world. The enjoyments available there, the capacity of the body and mind  for the enjoyment, the longevity of the residents are all in large dimension. That is why the Lord calls विशालम्, extensive.

क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्यलोकं विशन्ति –When their good karma has

depleted, they return to mortal world.  they come back to the terrestrial world when the merit credited to their account is expended. By their following of the injunction of the three Vedas, rightful living and performance of yagnyas people no doubt get entry into the doors of the heaven. But this door finally leads to the exit because such devotees desired only the gifts of God but not God himself.

गत आगतम् कामकामाः लभन्ते – Those seeking worldly enjoyments  repeatedly come and go. Such people who aspire and work for material desires, perform Vedic rites and attain heaven. After their time is over they are sent back to the

terrestrial world where they again perform the rites to reach the heaven. So they are called as गत आगतम् (going and

returning). In this way they keep travelling between  the two worlds. This is the auto- biography of a samsari.

In verses 20 and 21 the Lord shows that heaven is a round trip ticket. Heaven is a trap and the desire for heaven is the bait, for heaven keeps us away from our only Goal of God

realization. Those who go to heaven are no doubt righteous  but there is more for us than goodness namely Godness.

Verse 09:22


To my devotees who pray to me with disinterested spirit

 I supply their needs and safeguard their gains.

The Fruit of devotion……Verse 22 to 25


अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जनाः पर्युपासते ।

तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम् ॥९:२२॥

ananyāścintayantō māṁ yē janāḥ paryupāsatē |

tēṣāṁ nityābhiyuktānāṁ yōgakṣēmaṁ vahāmyaham ||9:22||

अनन्याः चिंन्तयन्तः माम्  ये जनाः पर्युपासते ।

तेषाम्  नित्याभियुक्तानाम् योगक्षेमम् वहामि अहम् ॥ 

अनन्याः –loving none else  चिन्तयन्तः –thinking of माम् –me, God with form and attributes ये –who जनाः –men (devotees) पर्युपासते –worship (in a disinterested spirit) तेषाम् –of them नित्याभियुक्तानाम् –ever united in thought with me  योगक्षेमम् –supply the needs and safeguard interests वहामि –carry, arrange अहम् –I

To men who always remember and adore me with single-minded contemplation, ever united to me, I supply their deficiencies (yoga) and preserve their gains. (kshema)

In verses 13 and 14 the Lord described the mode of devotion practiced by jnyanayogis or महात्मानः the great souls, who posses the knowledge of His imperishable self – अरूप ईश्वर.  From the  second line of verse 15 he describes about his

worship बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् in various ways  of his  cosmic or universal form  -अनेक रूप.

This is an important verse in Gita. The Lord gives a solemn assurance to the devotees that he will supply their needs and protect them. This verse is in the centre of Gita text. It has 701 verses and the present verse is 260th.His assurance comes with a caveat. The conditions are, the devotee should pray  with exclusive devotion in a disinterested spirit, and he should be ever united with me.

अनन्याः चिंन्तयन्तः माम्  ये जनाः पर्युपासते ।

अनन्य is न अन्य none else. चिंन्तयन्तः is not thinking of some thing or some one else. Such a devotee is not attached to any other God but the imperishable formless God.

अनन्याः चिन्तयन्तः – अन्य means others अनन्य means there are no others. There is only God in their mind. They have

withdrawn attachment from enjoyment of wordly objects and have unflinching love to personal God. They recognize God alone as the supreme goal.

माम् –me. In this verse it represents God with form and

attributes. (सगुण, साकार पुरुष), the supreme person or पुरुषोत्तम.

ये जनाः पर्युपासते –These men (devotees) worship me in a disinterested spirit

तेषाम्  नित्याभियुक्तानाम् योगक्षेमम् वहामि अहम् those who are ever united in thought with me. An अनन्य bhakta normally tends to be नित्याभियुक्त ever united in thought with God  steadyfastedly.

योगक्षेमम् वहामि अहम् –  I take care of their यॊग and क्षेम. Yoga means providing what is not posseed अप्राप्तस्य प्राप्तिः. This

includes both the spiritual and material welfare.  Kshema is preservation of what is possessed प्राप्तस्य प्राप्तिः. So, what God means is that, “I take care of their material and spiritual needs.” Acqusition and preservation are the two basic things in life. In this verse Krishna speaks about Nishkama Bhakti. I secure what they lack and preserve what they already

 possess. Such a person iives in eternal security. I will supply your needs and also take care of them.

This is Krishna’s solemn assurance to mankind. There many instances of effecting his declaration. When Eknath swami was writing Bhagavata, the Lord appeared in the form of a servant who cleaned his hut and surroundings. He filled

water to the tank, washed the clothes, took care of cows and prepared food for Ekanath. Ekanath was wholly involved in his writing.

In recent history, we find dthe evidence in the life of swami Vivekananda. Once he was travelling in the desert of Rajasthan. He has no penny in his pocket. An unknown devotee brought him a first class railway ticket. He was suffering from hunger and thirst. As the train pulled into a station, he sat on a stone bench on the platform. He was wearing ordinary cloath. Then an amazing thing happened. An unknown man came running to him and said, “Swamiji I have brought some food and sweets for you. Please partake it”. Swami Vivekananda said, “Well,  you seem to have consfused. It is not for me”. The the stranger replied, “Swamiji, I am the owner of a sweet meat shop and a devotee of Ram. When I was taking siesta Ram appeared before me in the dream. He said right now go the the railway platform. My devotee is in trouble. Help him.” So I am here. Please accept my humble service. This is योगक्षेमम् वहामि अहम्

Yogananda: This stanza of Gita reminds us of Christ’s words; “But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; add all these things shall be added unto you” (Matthew 6:33)

Verse 09:23

The  devotees of finite deities  also reach me, Albeit improper way

येऽप्यन्यदेवताभक्ता यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।

तेऽपि मामेव कौन्तेय यजन्त्यविधिपूर्वकम् ॥९:२३॥

yē’pyanyadēvatābhaktā yajantē śraddhayānvitāḥ |

tē’pi māmēva kauntēya yajantyavidhipūrvakam ||9:23||

ये अपि अन्यदेवताः भक्ताः यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।

ते अपि माम् एव  कौन्तेय यजंति अविधिपूर्वकम्  ॥

ये –who अपि –even अन्यदेवता –other Gods भक्ताः –devotees यजन्ते -worship श्रद्धया –with faith अन्विताः –endowed ते –they अपि -also माम् –me एव -only कौन्तेय –O son of Kunti, Arjuna यजन्ति –worship (with interested motives) अविधिपूर्वकम् –improper way

O Son of Kunti (Arjuna), even the devotees of other deities who worship with faith, worship me alone, but in an

improper way.


ये अपि अन्यदेवताः भक्ताः यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः

Even the devotees of other deities who worship with faith.

A devotee who offers his allegiance to other gods, does not worship God as the infinite but as one or more of his

manifestations with form and attributes. His devotion is to the money God, Knowledge God, Health God, Gods of

constellation such as Shani,  etc,. A devotee can rise as high as the object or the objective of his worship. He has normally a desire or a goal in his mind and performs the rites as

prescribed in the Vedas. He has full faith in the God and the expected reward. Natuarrly God is touched by his action and  bestows him results in the form of deity of his reverence.

श्रद्धया अन्विताः –endowed with faith. Such devotees have an unflinching faith in the performance of the rites and grant of rewards as laid down in the Vedas. They perform the sacrifice or charities with a view to attaining some desire. Worship should be done with devotion to obtain the blessing.


ते अपि  माम् एव कौन्तेय यजन्ति  अविधिपूर्वकम् – Even they worship me in an indirect way. “I am the cosmic body, I am the total mind and they worship my limbs. So I only receive  and grant their prayers”. सर्व देव नमस्कारः केशवम् प्रग्तिगछ्चति

This is an important shloka which proves the greatness of Sanatana Dharma. Unlike other semetic religions, Vedanta does not say that there is only one approach to God. The semetic religions claim that all other religions are false and salvation can be found only through their true religion.

अविधिपूर्वकम् –improper way . They are ignorant that all the finite devatas are included in Krishna.They do not attempt for God realization. Such worshippers, although they have faith and love for God, have an ulterior motive which will be no dout  granted to them. They reach the doors of heaven, enjoy all their disires and have to come back to work again in

this world.  The prorper way to worship God is not to have any attachment for the reward and they should try to reach to God than to his gifts.

Verse 09:24

Those who faill to know my superior nature fall

 into repeated cycles of birth and death

अहं हि सर्वयज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुरेव च ।

न तु मामभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्ति ते ॥९:२४॥

ahaṁ hi sarvayajñānāṁ bhōktā ca prabhurēva ca |

na tu māmabhijānanti tattvēnātaścyavanti tē ||9:24||

अहम्  हि सर्वयज्ञानाम् भोक्ता च प्रभुरेव च ।

न तु माम्  अभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेन अतः च्यवंन्ति ते ॥

अहम् –I हि -verily सर्वयज्ञानम् –of all sacrifices भोक्ता -enjoyer च –as well  प्रभुः –the lord एव -alone च -and न –not तु -but माम् -me (the supreme God) अभिजानन्ति –know तत्त्वेन –in essence, in reality अतः -hence च्यवन्ति –fall ते -they

I am indeed the only enjoyer and lord of all sacrifices. But people do not know my true transcendental nature.

Therefore they fall into the repeated cycles of birth and death.

अहं हि सर्वयज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुरेव –I am the and lord of all sacrifices. I am the immutable reality behind all the deities

invoked during the sacrifices. I am the body and they are all my limbs, and I am the soul of the universal God. It is like handing over the money o Post office to give to the addresse.

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः । अहमादिश्च मध्यं च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥१०:२०॥ Arjuna, I am the universal self seated in the heart of all beings; so I alone am the beginning, the middle and the end of all beings 10:20 

Since the ignorant people invoke the limited potential of me, they get fleeting reward of wealth and power in this world and heaven in the next. I am the ruler of Indra the lord of paradise, Varuna the God of water, Yama the God of death, Prajapati the god of creation, and all other regional Gods and celestials.

न तु माम्  अभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेन अतः च्यवंन्ति ते ॥

They do not know my transcendental  nature and therefore  fall into repeated birth and death. Here  माम् refers to the Akshara purusha, without form and attributes; the absolute consciousness. The ignorant people do not understand my reality and think that the lessor gods who have been

delegated the power of rewards are separate from me and pray them for fleeting benefits. They do not know the inner working.

तत्त्वेन अतः च्यवन्ति ते –my reality of sachidananda swarupa. Due to ignorance that the supreme spirit is the enjoyer and lord of all beings, they worship the celestials and are granted fulfilment of their expectations. After having enjoyed the limited benefit, they are bound to go back to the orginal position and work up again all the way. Thus they fall into samsar.

Verse 09:25

As you pray so you become

यान्ति देवव्रता देवान्पितॄन्यान्ति पितृव्रताः ।

भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्या यान्ति मद्याजिनोऽपि माम् ॥९:२५॥

yānti dēvavratā dēvānpitr̥̄nyānti pitr̥vratāḥ |

bhūtāni yānti bhūtējyā yānti madyājinō’pi mām ||9:25||

यान्ति देवव्रताः देवान् पित्रन् यान्ति पितृव्रताः ।

भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्याः यान्ति मद्याजिनः अपि माम् ॥ 

यान्ति –go देवव्रताः –worshippers of devas or celstials देवान् –to the devas पित्रन् –the pitris or manes यान्ति –go पितृव्रताः –worhippers of the manes भूतानि –ghosts यान्ति –go भूतेज्याः –wrshippers of the ghosts यान्ति –go मद्याजिनः –my worshippers अपि – also माम् –me

Worshippers of the celestial controllers go the celestial controllers, worshippers of the ancestors go the manes,

worshipper of the ghosts go to the ghosts, but my devotees come to me and are not born again.


यान्ति देवव्रताः देवान् पित्रन् यान्ति पितृव्रताः ।

देवव्रताः देवान् यान्ति –Devotees of astral deities go to them. Devotees of Indra, Varuna, Shiva, Vishnu etc are called  देवव्रताः. They perform sacrifices in their honour, repeat the japa and mantras fovourate to deities, feed the poor and Brahmins to propituate the deities. The devotees have an

interested motive in their actions. Such devotees are

bestowed with their desire and they go to such deities after their death, but have to return to the mortal world at once after their stock of merit is exhausted. If you recall to your mind verse 11 of chapter 3, you will notice that the Lord had declard that the worship of the deities gives them blessedness. But in the present verse he says that such devotees will have to come back to mortal world. This verse is quoted below:

देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवाः भावयन्तु वः 

परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ॥३ -११॥


Please the gods with sacrifices and they in turn will be

gracious to you. Fostering of the gods without any selfish desire will give you blessedness.


There is no contradiction between the two statements. In the 11th verse of chapter 3 , the devotee prays to the deities without any interested motive, but the devotee mentioned in chapter 9 in verses 20, 21, 23, 24 and 25 here, has an ulterior motive for the devotion. He wants a reward. Therefore such a man will go the world of deities to enjoy the reward but

returns  after expiry date.

पितृव्रताः पित्रन् यान्ति –Worshippers of the ancestors to the world of manes. Performance of ‘shradda’ (श्राद्धा), Tarpana (तर्पण- offering of food and water to the departed); feeding Brahmnis, offering oblation to fire God etc., constitute

worship of the ancestors.

भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्याः यान्ति मद्याजिनः अपि माम्

भूतेज्याः भूतानि यान्ति – Worshippers of the ghosts go the world of ghosts. Worship of the ghosts includes propitiation of ghosts and spirits. This is a tamasik activity and should be avoided.

मद्याजिनः माम् यान्ति – My devotees come to me. The word माम् refers to the absolute consciousness (निर्गुण,निराकार). मद्याजिनः  those who worship, adore, and meditate on God, in the form of japa, Dhyana, kirtana, Harikatha, singing his names and songs etc,  are the various practices of devotion. Such devotees  come to me meaning become one with me. The devotee who attains God has no return ticket. He

becomes one with God, but the devotee who goes to any other Loka by worshiping the limited potential of god or the bhutas and manes etc., has to come to back to this world. This fact is mentioned clearly in the following verse.

यथा यथा उपास्ये तदेव भवति : Whatever you worship you will become that.

आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन।

मामुपेत्य तु कौन्तेय पुनर्जन्म न विद्यते ॥८: १६॥


We should step back to the fourth chapter of Gita. Krishna says in 4:11 “In whatever way men approach me I reward them.” Is this a contradiction to what he has said regarding worship of relative beings instead of the Absolute? No,

because even that worship will eventually lead to something higher until the questing soul learns to worship God alone.

Verse 09:26

Even insignificant things offered to me with love are appreciated

पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।

तदहं भक्त्युपहृतमश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः ॥९:२६॥

patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ tōyaṁ yō mē bhaktyā prayacchati |

tadahaṁ bhaktyupahr̥tamaśnāmi prayatātmanaḥ ||9:26||

पत्रम् पुष्म् फम् तोयम् यः मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।

तत् अहम्  भक्त्युपहृतम् अश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः ॥ 

पत्रम् A leaf पुष्पम् –flower फलम् –fruit तोयम् –water यः–whoever मे – to me भक्त्या –with devotion प्रयच्छति –offers तत् –that अहम् –I भक्त्या उपह्रतम् –offered with devotion अश्नामि –partake प्रयतात्मनः –by the pure-minded devotee

Whosoever offers to me a leaf, a flower, a fruit, or even water with devotion, I accept and partake the offering by the pure-hearted.


पत्रम् पुष्म् फम् तोयम् यः मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।

पत्रम् पुष्पम् फलम् तोयम्  -a leaf, flower, fruit or just water, God wants love and devotion. A dedicated heart, not complicated rituals is needed to obtain his grace. Simple things like a leaf or water can be offered to him with Love.

यः मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति –whosoever offeres me a gift with love. Any one can offer him even small things with love and

gratitude which will please God. The Lord says I am भक्ति प्रिय but not वस्तु प्रिय. Every thing in the world has a value but not devotion. It is invaluable. God wants only devotion. Without devotion, even the elixir becomes poison. It is not important what we give to God, but how we give to him. If you look deeply, what can we offier to him. Everything belongs to him. We are giving him his own possession.

तन  मन धन है तेरा स्वामी  सब कुछ है तेरा  

तेरा तुझको अर्पण क्या लागे मेरा

He makes no discrimination of sex, colour, race, caste and possessions. Before we take our lunch we must mentally  offer it to God and thank him for the food. When setting out of the house for work, we may remeber God and at the end of the day thank him for the good day bestowed by him. Thus the mind becomes purer and free from ego. When Krishna came to the capital of Kauravas for brokering peace between the two sparring clans, Duryodhana had made elaborate preparation for Krishna’s dinner. But Krishna declined this and went  to the hut of his impoverished devotee Vidura for dinner and stayover. Similary Krishna received with honour a fistful of puffed rice from the hands of his poor friend 

Sudama. The most precious gift we can offer to the Lord is soul-surrender. Devotion is the key.

तत् अहम् भक्त्युपहृतम् अश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः  -I shall gladly partake the smallest of the offerings made to me with love and

devotion. That means God will not accept any offering made for the purpose of show and ostensity without love.

Verse 09:27

Dedicate  all your actions to me as an offering

यत्करोषि यदश्नासि यज्जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।

यत्तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत्कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥९:२७॥

yatka rōṣi yada śnāsi ya jjuhōṣi dadāsi yat |

yatta zpasyasi kauntēya tatkuruṣva madarpaṇam ||9:27||

यत् करोषि यत् अश्नासि यत् जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।

यत् तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत् कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥

यत् –whatever करोषि –you do यत् – whatever अश्नासि –you eat यत् – whatever जुहोषि – you offer as oblation to the sacred fire ददासि –you give as gift यत् – whatever तपस्यसि –you do by way of penance कौन्तेय O son of Kunti तत् –that कुरुष्व -do मदर्पणम् –as an offering to me

O Arjuna, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as oblation to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, dedicate everything to me as an offering.

By using five verbs, करोषि , अश्नासि, जुहोषि, ददासि, तपस्यसि with the prnoin ‘Yat’ (यत्) , the lord has listed in anutshell all duties of a man.

यत् करोषि यत् अश्नासि यत् जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।

यत् करोषि –whatever you do. This includes all the duties and activities of men, wordly as well as  spiritual (लौकिक and वैदिक)  It includes all activities done for the purpose of earning one’s livelihood, family and social responsibilities, entertainment ec.  Whatever you do, whatever actions you perform, O son of Kunti, whether in eating, observing spiritual rites, or bestowing gift, or in self-disciplining –dedicate all the activities unto me as an offering; ईश्वर अर्पणम्.

यत् अश्नासि –whatever you eat and enjoy. This includes the food and drinks we consume and also the sense gratifications we obtain by our actions. Receive such food and pleasures as a gift from God, ईश्वर प्रसादम्.

यत् तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत् कुरुष्व मदर्पणम्

whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, dedicate everything to me as an offering. Even the good actions like charity and other forms of tapas will become binding unless they are dedicated to the pleasure of God. that is why in the next verse the Lord says you will be released from the the results of good and bad actions.

We should realize that all the actions and achievements done by us are like a कठ् पुतली pipette show where the dance of the pipette is manipulated by pulling the strings tied to it.

What we normally do when we undertake a work, we

personally identify and attach with it,  and crave for its fruit. Therefore by renunciation of desires and attachment, and performing all the endeavours  as a loving dedication to God, and as a an opportunity to please and serve God, even the wickedest of men speedingly emerge from sin to sanctity, from ignorance to the healing light of wisdom. In the next verse 28, the Lord describes such a person as

संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा –mind established in the yoga of renunciation (offering all actions to God).

A smilar idea has been expressed by the Lord in verse 10 of Chapter 12. Here is the verse.

अभ्यासेऽप्यसमर्थोऽसि मत्कर्मपरमो भव ।मदर्थमपि कर्माणि कुर्वन्सिद्धिमवाप्स्यसि ॥१२:१०॥

If you are unable to do the spiritual yoga of repeated practice, then dedicate all your activities to me and work without any selfish motive just to serve and please me. You shall attain perfection (Realization)

यत् तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत् कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥

whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, dedicate everything to me as an offering.

As a karta I do the work as an offering to God (ईश्वर अर्पणम्) , as a bhokta I get receive it as his benediction (ईश्वर प्रसादम्). We should be reminded of Karmayoga which we studied in chapter 2 and 3. Karmayoga is Iswararpana bhavana and

prasada bhavana. So we may safely say that Karmayoga is identical with Nishkama Bhakti. From the stand point of

action it is called karmayoga, from the stand point of attitude it is called Nishkama bhakti.

कर्मबन्धन means bonding effects of karma. He who offers all his actions to God in a manner prescribed in the previous verse is exempted from the reactions of karma. Both punya and papa karma create bondage. पुनरपि जननम् पुनरपि मरणम्

Verse 09:28


You will be released from the good and evil effects of karma if you offer all actions to God

शुभाशुभफलैरेवं मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः ।

संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तो मामुपैष्यसि ॥९:२८॥

śubhāśubhaphalairēvaṁ mōkṣyasē karmabandhanaiḥ |

saṁnyāsayōgayuktātmā vimuktō māmupaiṣyasi ||9:28||

शुभाशुभफलैः एवम्  मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः ।

संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तः माम् उपैष्यसि ॥

शुभाशुभफलैः –freed from good and evil fruits (consequences) एवम् –thus मोक्ष्यसे –you will be released कर्मबन्धनैः – from the bonds of karma संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा –with your mind established in the yoga of renunciation (offering all actions to God) विमुक्तः – liberated माम् –me उपैष्यसि –you will attain

Thus you will be  freed  from the bonds of actions yielding good and evil fruits; with mind steadfast in the yoga of

renunciation, you will win freedom and come to me.


शुभाशुभफलैः एवम्  मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः

In this way, you will  be freed from karmic bondage which yield good and bad results. The result of Nishkama karma:

शुभाशुभफलैः –freed from good , punyam and evil fruits,

papam. शुभ फल are those which one gets by performing an activity without desire and attachment. These rewards

include freedom from rebirth, attenuation of vasanas or

taking birth in a wise family. अशुभ फल includes birth in lower species, increment of vasanas etc.

एवम् –thus by fallowing the instructions of previous shloka. That is dedicating all activities as ईश्वर अर्पणम् and partaking its fruit as ईश्वर प्रसादम्. His mind becomes established in the yoga of renunciation (संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा)

मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः you will be liberated from the bonds of karma, you will get freedom from birth and death and attain God. When the mind acts without ego and ego-centric

desires, and craving for the results, the personal actions do not add up to the vasanas. The existing vasanas get slowly and steady purged and therefore the mind becomes free from traces of vasanas; in other words it becomes purified. कर्मबन्धन means bonding effects of karma. He who offers all his actions to God in a manner prescribed in the previous verse is exempted from the reactions of karma. Both punya and papa karma create bondage. पुनरपि जननम् पुनरपि मरणम्

संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तः माम् उपैष्यसि ॥

with your mind established in the yoga of renunciation (offering all actions to God). Here sanyasa yoga has been used in the sense of yoga of renunciation but not as Sankhyayoga or jnyanayoga (सांख्ययोग, ज्ञानयोग). Sanyasa (सन्यास) in Gita is not wearing saffron robe. It is an attitude of the mind.

Abdicating the resuts of action is sanyasa yoga. Good results as well as bed results of an action both casue bondage. By sanyasa yoga, a mumukshu becomes and mukta. This refers to offering the rewards of karma to God. I being akarta offer my kartrutwa feeling to God.

We become prisoners of samsara not because God desired it, or this world has arresting effect,   not our wife and children, but  our egocentric work and desire to arrogate all the benefits to oneself.

A sanyasi dedicates all the activities undertaken by him to God, and does not enertain any ownership to the action or its fruit. योग means technique or method युक्त one who is joined, interested.  आत्मा is antahkarana or mind and intellect. Nishkama bhakta or karmayogi is both a sanyasi and yogi.

Swami Ramakrishna tells a storey why we should give up the result. Once a kite picked up fish in its mouth. A murder  (group) of cows chased  the kite. The kite dropped the fish and escaped from the crows. Similarly, if we drop the reward of action, we will escape from its effects. 

माम् उपैष्यसि –freed from bondage, you will attain me. Attainment of supreme abode of God may come in present life (सद्योर्मुक्ति) or after death (क्रममुक्ति).

Merger means dropping the notion that the lord is away from me. तत्वमेव त्वमेव तत्

One gets two benefits by being established in the yoga of renunciation. They are:

  1. complete release from the bondage of karma
  2. Attainement of God परमात्म प्राप्ति

Verse 09:29


God is impartial and same to all. He is not biased .

समोऽहं सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्योऽस्ति न प्रियः ।

ये भजन्ति तु मां भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु चाप्यहम् ॥९:२९॥

samō:’haṁ sarvabhūtēṣu na mē dvēṣyō:’sti na priyaḥ |

yē bhajanti tu māṁ bhaktyā mayi tē tēṣu cāpyaham ||9:29||

समः अहम् सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्यः अस्ति न प्रियः ।

ये भजन्ति तु माम् भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु च अपि अहम् ॥ 

समः -same अहम् – सर्वभूतेषु –in all beings न –not मे –to me द्वेष्य्ः –hateful अस्ति –is न –not प्रियः –dear ये –who भजन्ति -worship तु –but माम् –me भक्त्या –with devotion मयि –abide in me ते -they तेषु –in them (stand revealed to them) च –and अपि –also अहम् -I

I am impartial to all beings. To me none is hateful, none is dear. However, those who worship me with love and devotion abide in me; and I in them.


समः अहम् सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्यः अस्ति न प्रियः

There are different types of people, good, bad, smart, unsmart, rich, poor, long life, and short life. All these are

creation of God. Is God partial or biassed?. Why he created so many diffeences?

I am equal or impartial to all beings, none is hateful or dear to me.  God is present in all beings from Brahma to the small lump of grass as the supreme consciousness. Just as the sun shines on everything in the universe, on a cesspool of dirty water or on a clean brook, so God also illumines every being equally. In verse 4 of this chapter the Lord  says that  I am pervading everything in my unmanifest form (मया ततम्  इदम् सर्वम् जगत्). Such a statement is also made in verse 17  of chapter 7 quoted below.

तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्तः एकभक्तिर्विशिश्यते

प्रियो हि ज्ञानीनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः ॥७:१७


Among them the enlightened devotee, ever united with me and single pointed in devotion, is the best; I am very dear to the enlightened wise man, and he is beloved to me.

न मे द्वेष्य्ः अस्ति न प्रियः अस्ति  -To me none is hateful and none is dear. I have no partiality or prejudice against anyone.

ये भजन्ति माम् भक्त्या  मयि ते  तेषु अपि अहम् – However, those who woship me with faith and devotion abide in me; and I in them. We are never separate. What is the meaning of भजन्ति or worshipping? A devotee who lives in reverence and love to God with form or without form, chanting his names, glories, constantly reflects on the mystery of God and undertakes all his works deligently and faithfully as God’s service. He

expects no reward for his duty. This is the true worship. Just as God does not slip out of devotees mind, so the devotee also does not slip out of the mind of God. Such a constant devotion makes the devotee’s mind pure and steady. It is fit to shine the glory of God. A dirty glass does not reflect the sun. Only pure mind reflects the glory of God.

This previous verse creates a doubt if Krishna is partial towards his devoees. Does God then make a discrimination between a devotee and non- devotee? No. Although God is present in all sentient and insentient beings , and he is same to every one, he stands revealed to the perfect devotee because he wants the devotee to continue his Sadhana and merge with him. The Lord says in chapter 7:18

उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वात्मैव मे मतम् ।

आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम् ॥७:१८॥


All these seekers are indeed noble. But I regard the

enlightened devotee as my very self, because he is ever

established in me alone as his utmost goal.


I am with the father and the father with me (John 10.38 and 14.11) –Yogananda

The devotee becomes dear to God because he makes special efforts to reach him out. As Yogananda says, God chooses those who choose him. Although the sun shines equally on all, only the one who opens the window gets more sunlight.

Public Domain Image, source: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Shankaracharya gives a beautiful illustration. When you light a campfire, the one nearest to fire gets more warmth than the one who is farthest. The fire is not biased. It is impartial. Similarly,  God is also unbiased but is impartial. One who goes nearer to him gets more benefit. This is called samatva


The rain water falls equally upon the earth. The drop that falls on the rice field helps the rice plant to grow well. The drop that falls on the desert sand just seeps in. The drop that falls on the futter becomes dirty. The drop that falls on the oyset becomes a pearl. Rain water is not partial or biased. It is the recipient that determines what happens to it. God shines and gives grace to all of us. It is for us to tune to him receive his grace.

Verse 09:30


I will redeem even a  consummate sinner, if he prayes to me with exclusive devotion.

  1. Glory of bhakti ……………………………..30 to 34

अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् ।

साधुरेव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग्व्यवसितो हि सः ॥९:३०॥

api cētsudurācārō bhajatē māmananyabhāk |

sādhurēva sa mantavyaḥ samyagvyavasitō hi saḥ ||9:30||

अपि चेत् सुदुराचारः भजते माम् अनन्यभाक् ।

साधुः एव सः मन्तव्यः सम्यक् व्यवसितः हि सः ॥ 

अपि –Even चेत् -if सुदुराचारः –the vilest sinner भजते –worships me माम् -me  अनन्यभाक् –with unflincing devotion, with bhakti to none other than me साधुः –saint एव verily सः –he मन्तव्यः –has to be regarded सम्यक् –rightly व्यवसितः –has made right resolve in life, निश्चयः –decision हि indeed सः –he


Even if the vilest sinner worships me, with exclusive devotion, he too should be regarded as a saint for he has made the right resolve in life.


In the previous verse, the lord said that he who prays to him with love and devotion abides in him. Now a question comes what about a compulsive sinner? Can he be redeemed? The Lord answers it in this verse.

This is an important verse in Gita for it assures the consummate sinner that he too can get redeemed with single pointed devotion to God. The fire of sincere repentence burns all the sins.

अपि चेत् सुदुराचारः भजते माम् अनन्यभाक् -Even if the most wicked person prays to me with exclusive devotion. The words ‘even, if’ are used because normally a man taken to the habit of sin does not think of God and in fact  he detests God. Even if such a person, for some reason turns towards God with love and prays to him, the Lord says that still he has hopes and assurance of redemption.

सुदुराचारः –Consummate sinner, perpetrator of vilest evil. It indicates moral turpitude, vile habits such as drinking, robbery, cheating, killing, gambling, illicit relations and a social enemy. He has no thought of God any time and indeed he is anti-God

भजते माम् अनन्यभाक् – prays to me with love and devotion steadfastedly.

The conversion of Ratnakara, a dreadful decoit into sage valimiki is a good example. Girish Chandra Ghosh was a great devotee of Ramakrishna. Earlier, he was an inveterate sinner. He claimed, “There is no sin that is not  committed by me. If I had kept the empty bottles of liquour I consumed one above the other, it would be as big as a mountain”. Ater coming into contact with Ramakrishna be became a great saint. That is why it is said, every sinner has a future.

साधुः एव सः मन्तव्यः सम्यक् व्यवसितः हि सः

–He has to be considered as a virtous soul for he has choosen the right option in life.  Due to some reasons like association with good people, repentence, or suffering etc, he comes to

believe in God and prays to him in supreme faith and single minded devotion, such a man should be considered as a saint.

सः सम्यक् व्यवसितः हि –for he has made right resolve in life. God gives an opportunity to everyone to make a conscious decision. He can move towards God or away from God, for the Lord is the same to both.  व्यवसीयते means knowing the real nature, or proper determination, proper decision. The sinner has understood that God is supremely compassionate and redeems any sinner provided he prays to him with single minded devotion.

A doubt arises about two types of statements made by

Krishna. In verse 15 of chapter 7 the Lord says, “The perpetrators of evil follow the path of devils, and they do not come to me”

न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः।

माययापहृतज्ञानाः आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ॥७ -१५॥


The perpetrators of evil, the misguided fools and the lowest of men whose discrimination has been hijacked by the

delusion of maya, follow the path of devils.


But in the present verse the Lord gives hope for even the worst type of perpetrators of evil. Is there a contradiction in his two statements?

It should be remembered that the sinner referred to chapter 7 had neither faith in God nor had any knowledge about him, or was he keen to avoid sin. Therefore such a foolish

anti-social being was characterised as  ‘lowest among the men’ and ‘deluded of wisdom’. The sinner spoken of in the present verse, however is though addicted to sin, wants to change his vagabond ways and turns towards God for his compassionate grace. The Lord therefore calls him rightly

resolved (सः सम्यक् व्यवसितः). The latter has moved in the right direction, so God promises him redemption.

Verse 09:31

The sinner becomes virtous . Know that my devotee shall never perish

क्षिप्रं भवति धर्मात्मा शाष्वच्छांतिं निगच्छति ।

कौन्तेय प्रतिजानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति ॥९:३१॥

kṣipraṁ bhavati dharmātmā śaśvacchāntiṁ nigacchati |

kauntēya prati jānīhi na mē bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati ||9:31||

क्षिप्रम् भवति धर्मात्मा शष्वत् शांतिम्  निगच्छति ।

कौन्तेय प्रति जानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति ॥  

क्षिप्रं –soon भवति –he becomes धर्मात्मा –virtous शश्वत्  -lasting शान्तिम् -peace of mind निगच्छति –he attains कौन्तेय –O Son of Kunti प्रतिजानीहि –know, take my promise न -not मे –my भक्तः –devotee प्रणश्यति –perishes

Soon he becomes virtuous and secures lasting peace. O Son of Kunti, know  for certain that my devotee shall never perish.

क्षिप्रम् भवति धर्मात्मा शष्वत् शांतिम्  निगच्छति ।

Such a person who has indulged in sin, but has decided to end his wayward habits and turn to God for redemption, soon becomes virtuous.  No sin is unforgivable. Gita gives

assurance that a sinner too can recover his long forgotten spiritual heritage. Virtous qualities have been listed from verse 1 to 3 of chapter 16 starting with  अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः. Here is the verse:

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।

दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥१६:१॥


अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् ।

दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥१६:२॥


तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता ।

भवन्ति संपदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥१६:३॥

The lord calles these qualities as दैवी संपत्, the devine

endowment. धर्मात्मा- धर्म अत्मा his mind becomes righteous. He has given more importance to धर्म than अर्थ and काम. He will start as arta bhakta and gradually become jignyasu bhakta (one who is interested in knowing the nature of God) and finally jyani bhakta.

शश्वत् शान्तिम् निगच्छति –such a bhakta will secure unending peace. That peace with the realization of God is lasting and when once attained, is never lost. This peace has been more specifically explained in verse 62 of chapter 18  quoted below:

तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत।तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम् ॥१८:६२॥ 

The lord calls this peace as Naishthiki Shanti (नैष्ठिकी शान्ती) in verse 12 of Chapter 5

युक्तः कर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम्।अयुक्तःकामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते ॥५१२॥ 

कौन्तेय प्रतिजानीहि – Arjuna understand my promise. Broadcast this promise through all media that

न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति – My devotees shall never perish. The same idea had earler been told by the Lord when he said यॊगक्षेमम् वहाम्यहम् Ch 09:22

Verse 09:32


Everyone without any discrimation is eligible to attain me

मां हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य येऽपि स्युः पापयोनयः ।

स्त्रियो वैश्यास्तथा शूद्रास्तेऽपि यान्ति परां गतिम् ॥९:३२॥

māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya yē:’pi syuḥ pāpayōnayaḥ |

striyō vaiśyāstathā śūdrāstē:’pi yānti parāṁ gatim ||9:32||

माम् हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य ये अपि स्युः पापयोनयः ।

स्त्रियः वैश्याः तथा  शूद्राः ते अपि यान्ति पराम् गतिम् ॥ 

माम् –me हि –indeed पार्थ – O son of Pritha व्यपाश्रित्य –taking refuge in, depending on, support ये अपि –whoever, even the disadvanaged people स्युः –may be पापयोनयः – of sinful birth स्त्रियः –women वैश्याः -Vaishyas, तथा –as also शूद्राः -Shudras ते –they अपि –also यान्ति –obtain पराम् –supreme गतिम् –goal that is  liberation.

Taking shelter in me all beings can achieve the supreme

fulfilment—be they those of sinful birth, or women or vaishyas or Shudras.

The Lord reiterates in this verse that all are eligible to obtain me.

माम् हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य ये अपि स्युः पापयोनयः ।

-Taking refusge in me even those of sinful birth पापयोनयः –born to sinful family. Birth does not make any one ineligible to reach to God. He makes no difference, he is same in all and same to all. The only condition is that he has to be devoted to God

स्त्रियः वैश्याः तथा  शूद्राः ते अपि यान्ति पराम् गतिम्

-women, vaishyas or shudras achieve the supreme goal. It is a bit difficult to understand the statement. The ladies, vaishyas and shudras  were looked down upon. Vedanta says, the same atma is present in all beings. This universal lofty idea was misinterpreted by vested interest.

Vedanta does not discriminate the people and even lower animals. All are children of God. All of them have same

opportunity to realize him.

There is a storey of janaka-Sulabhaa samvada( सुलभा -जनक संवाद). King Janaka went to a lady by name Sulabha to gain self-knowledge.

Yogananda adds, “The Lord is not casting a slur against

women, and those of low birth and wordly businessmen (Vaishyas), and body-identified labourers (Shudras). No

scripture suggests that these are the worst among the

sinners. The real meaning is:  “for a true devotee, all social inequalities are negated”.

बान्धवाः शिवभक्ताश्च – all the devotees of God are brothers.

Too rigid and sectarian meaning should not be given to the wordings here. Gita is a universal scripture and is not limited to one section. What the Lord implies here is that even the people who are born in families prone to habitual sins can be redeemed if they turn towards Him. The ladies, traders,

agriculturist, artisans and workers who are not usually

exposed to the study of scriptures  and thus disadvantaged can also be redeemed by devotion to Him. The Lord says in verse 66 of chapter 18 that whoever surrenders unto me will be freed from the bondage.

 सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥१८:६६॥ 

“In the stanzas from 29 to 32, the Lord offers sweetest solace and the highest hope to all His children, even the erring and bewildered. He offers three solutions to the wise as well as the sinners for liberation. These are:

  1. संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा –with your mind established in the yoga of renunciation that is dedicating all actions and results unto God. This is called renunciation or sanysasa. Here the jnyana bhakta has no desires and attachment for the action and their fruits. He only works for pleasing God and as an

opportunity to serve him.

  1. भजते माम् अनन्यभाक् – with devotion to none other than me; exclusive devotion
  2. सम्यक् व्यवसितः choice of right path in life ; Not only can the righteous attain liberation, but even the wickedest of sinners can speedily emerge from sin to sanctity, from ignorance to healing lights of wisdom.

Verse 09:33

The path of devotion and divine communion with me is easier

 to holy Brahmins and pious royal saints.


किं पुनर्ब्राह्मणाः पुण्या भक्ता राजर्षयस्तथा ।

अनित्यमसुखं लोकमिमं प्राप्य भजस्व माम् ॥९:३३॥

kiṁ punarbrāhmaṇāḥ puṇyā bhaktā rājarṣayastathā |

anityamasukhaṁ lōkamimaṁ prāpya bhajasva mām ||9:33||

किम् पुनर्ब्राह्मणाः पुण्याः भक्ताः राजर्षयः तथा ।

अनित्यम् असुखम् लोकम् इमम्  प्राप्य भजस्व माम् ॥ 

किम् –how much more पुनः -then र्ब्राह्मणाः –Brahmins पुण्याः –holy भक्ताः –devotees राजर्षयः –Royal saints तथा –also अनित्यम् –transient असुखम् –unhappy लॊकम् –world इमम् –this प्राप्य –having obtained भजस्व –worship माम् -me


What to speak of  then the holy brahmins and the pious

royal saints ! Therefore having obtained this joyless and transitory human life, constantly worship me with loving


किम् पुनः र्ब्राह्मणाः पुण्याः भक्ताः राजर्षयः तथा –What to speak then of the holy Brahmins, and the pious and royal saints?  the previous shloka the Lord emphasised that  even the people like the women folks, the vaishyas and shudras and people born to  evil disposition , who are not normally exposed to the study of Brahman,  could be benefitted by single minded Bhakti. Now in this verse he says how much easy it should be for the Brahmins and Rajarshis who are normally into study of Brahman, to realize God through Bhakti.

पुण्याः- the holy. It stands for the pious Brahmins and royal saints who are spotless in character and noble in conduct.

भक्ताः –The devotees . Devotion is spoken here as responsible for attaining the supreme goal.

अनित्यम् असुखम् लॊकम् इमम् प्राप्य भजस्व माम् – having reached this world of impermanence, and grief, O Arjuna, may you constantly worship me. This is the message given by the Lord to the entire humanity.  

Verse 09:34


The Lord gives a 5-point action plan to attain Him

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।

मामेवैष्यसि युक्त्वैवमात्मानं मत्परायणः ॥९:३४॥

manmanā bhava madbhaktō madyājī māṁ namaskuru |

māmēvaiṣyasi yuktvaivamātmānaṁ matparāyaṇaḥ ||9:34||

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तः मद्याजी माम्  नमस्कुरु ।

माम् एव एष्यसि युक्त्वा एवम् आत्मानम् मत्परायणः ॥ 

मन्मना –with the mind filled with me भव –become मद्भक्तः भव –become my devotee मद्याजी भव –become my worshippper माम् –me नमस्कुरु –bow down माम् –to me एव –alone ऎष्यसि–you shall come युक्त्या –having united (with me) एवम् –like this आत्मानम् –your self मत्परायणः –taking me as the supreme goal


Fix your mind on me, be devoted to me, worship me, and bow down to me; having thus united yourself to me as your highest goal, you shall come to me.


मन्मना भव मद्भक्तः मद्याजी माम्  नमस्कुरु

The following commentery is based on Swami

Paramarthanada’s pdf. The Lord gives a 5 point action plan to attain him.

  1. मन्मना भव– Become one whose mind be filled with me. Develope devotion and love towards me. At least for the sake of gift of worldy pleasures, let your mind be filled with love for me. God can be looked upon as a means to wordly possession such as Putra labham, dhana prapti, election; Sakama bhakti or arta and artharthi bhakti. Use god for worldly end. In whatever form you worship I will fulfil your desire.
  2. मत्परायणः भव Next graduate to matparayana. Make God as your goal instead of your tool. Understand that worldly goals have limitations. They cannot give peace, security and

happiness because they themselves are insecure in nature. Only God or Brahman can give permanency. If God is

converted into a goal  or a sadhana God becomes a sadhya or reachable. The tool becomes the reward.

  1. मद्भक्तः भव – Once God has become the primary goal, the mind should not lose sight of your goal. He should be in our front all the times. He should be in our sub-conscious mind. He is our destination. The devotee realizes God is all- pervading, supreme ruler, the supreme goal, supreme refuge, his best friend and protector. Do not forget your goal. Become focussed in me. Let it become your passion. Do not be swayed by other attractions.
  2. मद्याजी भव – Become my worshipper. Worship includes many acts. Pay obeisance and respect to the images or potraits of Gods in the temples or home, mentally worshipping the images of God, keeping oneself engaged in activities

connected to God, caring one’s parents, elders and Brahmanas (who have the knowledge of Brahman) and the poor in particular and  all beings in general; serving the society at large without any personal interest—all these constitute worshipping the lord. Convert your every  action into worship of lord contributing to your spiritual goal. Utilize every moment for spiritual goal.

यत्करोषि यदश्नासि यज्जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।

 यत्तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत्कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥९:२७॥


O Arjuna, whatever you do, whatever you eat, whatever you offer as oblation to the sacred fire, whatever charity you give, whatever austerity you perform, dedicate everything to me as an offering.


  1. माम् नमस्कुरु – Prostrate before God. Dont become arrogant. Realize whatever I am to day is because of grace of Lord, in future also I need his grace. ईश्वर अनुग्रह. If these five conditions are fulfilled; thus engaging yourself you will certainly attain me alone. Bhakti will lead every person to moksha

whatever the level of the person. Eka rupa to aneka rupa and arupa.

माम् एव एष्यसि युक्त्वा एवम् आत्मानम् मत्परायणः ॥ 

having thus united yourself to me as your highest goal, you shall come to me.

युक्त्या –comminicating with God with your body, mind and intellect

माम् एव ऎष्यसि–You shall come to me.  You will get realization and obtain freedom.

आत्मानम् –your self or body, mind and intellect.

In this verse the lord describes briefly the three tools of attaining God which has been already described by him. they are Krma Yoga, Bhakti yoga and Jnyana Yoga. मन्मनाः भव let your mind be filled with my memory. This word indicates  jnyana yoga. It involves freedom from all types of unjust distinction and partiality. मद्भक्तः भवBecome my devotee. This word indicates bhakti yoga or path of devotion. It involves freedom from egotism, ‘my-ness ‘and ‘mine-ness’ (यतवाक्कायमानसः) मद्याजी भव become my worshipper. This word indicates  Karma yoga or the path of right action. It involves freedom from attachment to karma, the rewards of karma and ownership of karma कर्म संग, कर्वत्व and भोक्त्रत्व.

ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे

श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे राजविद्याराजगुह्ययोगो नाम नवमोऽध्यायः ॥९॥

Thus, in the Upanishad of the glorious Bhagavad Gita, in the science of the Eternal, in the scripture of Yoga, in the dialogue between Shri Krishna and Arjuna, the Ninth discourse entitled The Yoga of Royal Knowledge and Mystery

Summary of 9th chapter

राजविद्या-राजगुह्य योगः

Based on Paramatmananda’s  Audio Summary

The Lord discusses about Nirguna Ishwara in 7th chapter and he continues with its discussion in the 9th chapter. 8th Chapter was incidental where the Lord discussed about Saguna Ishwara and attainment of indirect liberation क्रममुक्ति.  In this method of liberation, the seeker worships a God of his choise with form and attributes. After death he goes to Brahma Loka, where Lord Brahma himself teaches the seeker the knowledge of Nirguna Ishwara which he avoided all his life, and ultimately the seeker unites with the absolute Brahman. The  intention of the Lord is that every devotee should attain Moksha or liberation right in this birth सद्योर्मुक्ति instead of mukti at Brahmaloka level (क्रम मुक्ति). For this purpose he discusses the module of Sadyomukti in the 7th as well as 9th chapters.

Verse 1 to 3

In the first 3 verses Krishna introduces the subject of Raja Vidya Raja Guhya yoga. The subject is the knowledge of jñāna and vijñāna; God or Ishwara (also called Saguna as well as Nirguna; God with a form or without form and attributes). It is the most secret and sacred knowledge which releases one from bondage. It is called secret because it is not understood by the unprepared mind just like the theory of relativity. The subject of the knowledge is not any objects like chemistry,

Rocket science etc., It is the very subject which is “I”. Although it is available in books it is not understood unless initiated by a teacher.  It is called sacred because It  is the easiest and immediate in giving the result. The seeker should have faith in the teacher and the teaching if the pursuit should be fruitful.

Verses 4 o 10

In these 7 verses, the Lord explains the nature of his reality. This is called higher nature, apara prakrati, or Kshetrajna. In Vedanta Nirguna Ishwara is called Brahman. So these seven verses describe the Brahma svarupa. The following points are highlighted.

  1. Real God is all pervading. सर्वगतः अहमस्मि. Any personal god located in a particular place like Kailasa, Vaikuntha, top of a hill or in a particular town, ceases to be all- pervading because of his fixed location in a particular place.
  2. अव्यक्त, इन्द्रिय- अगोचर Unmanifest, not available for sensory perception. If any one claims that he has seen God with his eyes, we must presume that his God is apara prakrati.
  3. मिथ्या जगत् अधिष्टानम् Supporter of the world which has only a lower reality.
  4. असन्गत्वम् or unsullied nature. Even though he supports the entire world, the impurities of the world do not pollute the Lord. Just as the sky remains uncontaminated by the air which it supports, the Lord also remains uncontaminated by the world.

यथाकाशस्थितो नित्यं वायुः सर्वत्रगो महान् ।

तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानीत्युपधारय ॥९:६॥

  1. स्रष्टि स्थिति लय कारणम् Ishwara is the cause of origination, existence and resolution of the cosmos.
  2. साक्षि मात्र a witness. (उदासीनवत् आसीनम्) Although the lord undertakes the job of creation, support and dissolution of the world he is is not a doer or enjoyer. He does all this as a witness without any selfish motive in the work. अकर्ता, अभोक्ता.

Verse 11

In the 11th verse, Krishna talks about संसार कारणम्, the cause of bondage, why there is samsara and suffering of human

beings. The ignorant do not understand that God is beyond time and space and is the transcendental consciousness. So, they think in terms of limited human body and do not

attempt to get rid of it.

Verses 12 to 19; 8 verses. The three ways to worship to God.

Cherishing vain desires of material comfort and acquisition, they indulge in pleasures which can never be satiated by their enjoyment. It creates more and more bondage of world (Verse 12). If the darkness or agnyana is the problem, the

solution is to light the knowledge of Jnyana or knowledge. The  great souls who have realized the true nature of God as eternal, and imperishable source, turn to him for liberation from bondage. They worship God with single minded love but they have some material desire for their prayer. (Verse 13) Some others continue all the activities as a service to God (ज्ञानयज्ञ). Thus there are three ways of worship to God based on the method of worship. First is एकरूप इश्वर a personal God with definte form and attributes like Rama, Krsihna, and deities based in some sacred places. Next is अनेक रूप or विश्वरूप; God with multiple forms such as the celestial Indra, Varuna, the sun, moon, etc. The Lord calls this as बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम्; multifaced deity.  Both these types of devotees have some selfish desire in their prayer to God and their payer will be answered by God. The next level of bhakti is  अरूप ईश्वर, God without any form and attributes, the absolute formless spirit. Here the devotee has no selfish desire in his prayer. He

continues all his activities as a service to God. He has no

attachment for the fruits of his work. He practices Vedanta vichara, shravana,  manana, and nidhidhyasana. He spreads the knowledge of God  as a service to God with a view to helping others also achieve liberation. This is called Jnyana yagna (verse 15)  Verses 12 to 19 give the remedies for ignorance as three types of Bhakti based on Sadhana karma. In the verses 16 to 19, the Lord describes his multifacet forms बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम्. He says that he is the cause of origin,

sustenance and dissolution of the world. He suppots the world . He is the knowledge and the thing to be known. He is the subject, object and tool. There is nothing in this world other than him.


Verse 20 to 29 Motive based bhakti

Krsihna talks of 2 forms bhakti based on motive. Sakama bhakti and Nishkama bhakti (सकाम भक्ति, निष्काम भक्ति). Shri parameshwar prityartham (श्री परमेश्वर प्रीत्यर्थम्) is Nishkama bhakti. संतान प्राप्ति याग is Sakama Bhakti. Bhakti can be used for finite goal or infinite goal. If a man prays for some

rewards (श्रेय, धर्मार्थ, काम, मोक्ष  सिद्ध्यर्थम्) which is a सकाम काम it is not a sin, but he will have to come back to earth endlessly after enjoying his merits which get depleted in heaven. क्षीणे पुण्ये म्रुत्युलोकम् विशन्ति . A Nishkama bhakta has understood that nitya vastu or para prakrati (नित्य वस्तु or परा प्रक्रति) can alone give permanent happiness. He prays as परमात्म प्रीत्यर्थम्. It is for the devotee to choose what he wants; the finite God or his infinite gifts. If a devotee worships a finte potential of God  for finite gifts of world or heaven, he will get finite reward of his liking.  But he misses the infinite due to ignorance (Verse 24). Though the Lord is capable of giving everything, he can only give what the devotee is willing to receive (Verse 25). Nishkama bhakti is easy to practice and gives highest reward. Sakama bhakti is difficult to practice and the reward is transient. The lord wants only simple gift like पत्रम् पुश्पम् फलम् तोयम् and not eloberate rituals. Only two prerequisites are there; exclusive devotion and non attachment for the reward. For such a bhakta the Lord will provide everyting including his well being (Verse 22).

Verse 30 to 34 glorification of bhakti.

In these 5 verses, Krsihna glorfies Bhakti or devotion. Bhakti has two layers-karma Upasana and jnyana Upasana (कर्म उपासना and ज्ञान उपासना). Even the vilest sinner, corrupt criminal, or a terrific  terrorist  can start bhakti provided he has a change of heart. In Verse 30, the Lord says:

अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् ।

साधुरेव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग्व्यवसितो हि सः ॥९:३०॥


There may be some people who are less previlaged and not exposed to the virtues and extent of God. Even such people can make a beginning with Bhakti (Verse 32).

Thus Bhakti is universal and the devotee shall never perish (Verse 31).

In the last verse 34, the Lord gives a blue print of how a bhakta can progress to unite with the Lord.  मन्मना भव  at least for the sake of gift of worldy pleasures let your mind be filled with me with love. Then graduate into  मत्परायणः  भव make me as the supreme goal of your life. Do no bother about the gift of God but try to obtain God himself. In due course learn to love me as as a passion. मद्भक्तः भव Show your gratitude to God for gift and the favour. Always remember the gifts of God; मद्याजी भव worship me, become my devotee.

“Having thus united yourself with me as your highest goal, you shall attain me”.