Description of Samsara
Means of Liberation
4 To 6
Brahman is Jiva
7 to 1
Brahman is Jagat
12 to 15
Brahman is Purushotama
1 to 18
Glory of Purushottama Jnyana
19 to 20
The main topics discussed in this chapter are:
Shri Bhagawan Uvacha
VERSE – 15: 01
The holy fig tree has its roots above and branches below. It leaves are the
hymns of Vedas. One who knows this is the knower of Vedas.
ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम् ।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित् ॥१५:१॥
ūrdhvamūlamadhaḥśākhamaśvatthaṁ prāhuravyayam |
chandāṁsi yasya parṇāni yastaṁ vēda sa vēdavit ||15:1||
ऊर्ध्वमूलम् अधः शाखम् अश्वत्थम् प्राहुः अव्ययम् ।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यः तम् वेद सः वेदवित् ॥
ऊर्ध्वमूलम् –having its roots above (in God) अधः- below शाखम् –branches अश्वत्थम् –the Peepul tree (fig tree) प्राहुः –they speak of अव्ययम् –indestructible छन्दांसि –the verses of Vedas यस्य –whose पर्णानि –leaves यः –who तम् –that वेद –knows सः –he वेदवित् –the knower of the Vedas
They (wise people) speak of an eternal Ashwatha tree (peepul, Holy fig) as having its roots above and branches below; Its leaves are the hymns of the Vedas, and he who understands the concept of this tree is the knower of the Vedas.
श्रीभगवानुवाच the chapter starts with this phrase. We should remember that these are the words of the Lord through the pen of Vyasa.
ऊर्ध्वमूलम् अधः शाखम् –Having its roots in God and its braches below downward. Lord Krishna declares that the Supreme Being is the foundation of all existence, and refers allegorically to this universe as an inverted tree whose roots are in Para Brahman, and whose branches and foliage are spread downward. While other ordinary trees have their roots go downward below the earth’s surface, this mysterious tree of creation has its roots fixed upwards. That is the extraordinary phenomenon. In the Kathopanishat the tree of life is also compared to the fig tree. It says, ऊर्ध्वमूलॊवशाखः एशोश्वथः सनातनः
अश्वत्थम् –the tree of ashwatha (Ficus religiosa). अश्वत्थम्- अ-not श्व-tomarrow त्थम्-to stop. That means one which does not stay till tomarrow or next day. That means it is constantly changing. This word refers to the world of plurality whch is impermanent. In Sanskrit the world is called as samsara (संसार). संसरति इति संसारः one which is on constant change or in a state of flux. Another word for the world is jagat (जगत्). गछ्छति इति जगत् one that is on the go. The tree is not eternal. Similarly the world is also not eternal. But due to ignorance we are convinced that it is eternal
प्राहुः अव्ययम् –The wise people say it is eternal. Being subject to change, this tree of creation is perishable, transient and momentary in character. Yet it existed continuously from beginning and hence it is called अव्ययम् or imperishable. In verse 3 Krishna says that it is not imperishable and exhorts us to hack this tree with the formidable axe of dispassion.
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि– Its leaves are the hymns of Vedas. Just as the leaves arise from the branches of the tree and protect the tree, the Vedas also are created from Brahma protects the world. Vedas are represented by the leaves of the tree.
यः तम् वेद सः वेदवित् – One who fully understands the nature of this Samsara-Tree goes beyond Maya. To be attached to it is to be caught by it. The surest way of transcending this
samsara or worldly life is by wielding the excellent weapon of dispassion and non-attachment.
One who understands that the world of phenomenon arises from the Brahman who is the ony one who is imperishable. One who knows what is perishable and what is imperishable is the knower of the Veda. Just reciting a few verses from the Vedas does not make one the knower of the Vedas. The knower of the Vedas is one who realizes that the Brahman is the material and objective cause of this world, multitude of species are its branches, Vedas are its leaves and although the world is destructible its source or Brahman is eternal.
VERSE – 15: 02
The branches of the tree extend downward nurtured by the gunas.
The roots of the tree bind the men into samsara.
अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखा
गुणप्रवृद्धा विषयप्रवालाः ।
कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके ॥१५- २॥
adhaścōrdhvaṁ prasr̥tāstasya śākhā
guṇapravr̥ddhā viṣayapravālāḥ |
karmānubandhīni manuṣyalōkē ||15- 2||
अधः च ऊर्ध्वम् प्रसृताः तस्य शाखाः गुणप्रवृद्धाः विषयप्रवालाः ।
अधः च मूलानि अनुसंततानि कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके ॥
अधः below च –and उर्ध्वम् –above प्रसृताः –spread तस्य –its शाखाः –branches गुणप्रवृद्धाः –noursihed by the Gunas विषयप्रवालाः –sense objects are its buds अधः -below च –and मूलानि –its roots अनुसंततानि –are spread everywhere कर्मानुबन्धीनि –binding (the soul) according to its actions or karma मनुष्यलोके –in the world of men
The branches of the tree extend upward and downward, nurtured by the three Gunas; with the senses objects as tender buds. The roots of the tree hang downward, which bind the soul to human body according to karma in the world of men.
अधः च उर्ध्वम् प्रसृताः तस्य शाखाः –The branches of this tree of samsara grow below, and above.The branches which grow upward are devatas and Brahma or Hiranyagarbha who
reside high in the space. The roots which grow below are the human beings and the world of objects and emotion. The roots which grow downward are represented by various beasts, birds and other smaller animals and insects.
The life is like the game of snake and ladder. The new form you take after death depends on the karma. The jiva can take a lower form or upper form. It is not a linear progress. One may take Deva sharira, manushya or Pitra sharira. Bhuvarloka and suvarloka are upper branches and bhuloka is middle branch and hell is the lower branch.
तस्य शाखाः गुणप्रवृद्धाः – Its branches are nourished by Gunas (thee modes of material nature). Just as the banches of a tree grow with the help of water and nutrients, the branches of the tree of samsara are nourished by the three gunas of sattva, rajas and tamas. sattva guna is responsibe for the growth of the upward branches, rajo guna for the middle ones and tamo guna for the growth of lower branches.
विषयप्रवालाः –The sense objects (विषय) are the sprouts and buds (प्रवालाः) of the tree of samsara. The desire to enjoy the sense objects causes more desire, attachment and hatred and cause karmaphala. शब्द स्पर्श रूप रस गन्ध are the five sense objects or विषय. They cater to the five senses of श्रोत्रुम् त्वक् चक्शुः रसना घ्राणम्
अधः च मूलानि अनुसंततानि –Their roots exend deep downward.
Although the principle root of the tree lies above in cosmic consciousness, their secondary roots grow downward into the world of men. Attachemnt, Raga, Dwesha, vasana are its the sprawling secondary roots. अनुसंततानि: spread all over. Causes varieties of karma. Birth and death continues like a Giant Wheel without any stop.
कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके –The roots bind the men to the objective world. The desire to enjoy the sense objects cause bondage to the life. Fulfillment of desire gives sense pleasures and creates attachment. Every sense object is the seat of attraction or Kama (desire). Desire leads to karma or activity, karmaphala which determines next sharira. Desire-activity-karmaphala (punya papa) is the cycle of samsara.
मनुष्यलोके 14 lokas are there. Manushya janma is only for
removing karma. Other lokas are for exspending the punya or merits.
VERSE – 15: 03
Obtain liberation from the tree of samsara, by firmly
cutting off with the tool of dispassion
Means of Liberation 3 To 6
न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते
नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा ।
अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूल –
मसङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा ॥१५:३॥
na rūpamasyēha tathōpalabhyatē
nāntō na cādirna ca saṁpratiṣṭhā |
aśvatthamēnaṁ suvirūḍhamūla –
masaṅgaśastrēṇa dr̥ḍhēna chittvā ||15:3||
न रूपम् अस्य तथा इह उपलभ्यते
न अन्तः न च आदिः न च संप्रतिष्ठा ।
अश्वत्थम् एनम् सुविरूढमूलम्
असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा ॥
न –not रूपम् –form अस्य –its इह –here तथा –as such उपलभ्यते –found न –not अन्तः –its end न –not च –and आदिः –its origin न –not च –and संप्रतिष्ठा –foundation अश्वत्थम् –the tree of Ashwatha एनम् –this सुविरूढमूलम् –most firmly rooted असङ्गशस्त्रेण –by the axe of non-attachment दृढेन –formidable छित्त्वा -felling
Its form (the tree of samsara) is not here to be perceived as such, neither its end nor its beginning nor foundation are seen; having cut off this firm rooted tree of Ashwatha with the strong axe of non-attahcment…..
न रूपम् अस्य इह तथा उपलभ्यते – The picture of the invered tree as described above is indeed not perceived in reaity. The Lord has laid before us a symbolic picture of the universe or of the mysterious tree of life. It is nothing but a metaphor to describe the mortal world and sense enjoyment which causes more and more attractions, actions to enjoyment resulting in vasanas and repeated births. That is why in chapter 15, verse 16, the Lord calls this world as Kshara Purusha or a perishable entity.
This world has no definite shape. It has no beginning or end. do you know the water in a mirage has come come which river and joining ewhich ocean?
न अन्तः न च आदिः संप्रतिष्ठा – There is no beginning or end for this tree of creation. By implication it means that there is no middle as well. Although it is believed that the creation springs up at the beginning of cosmic day and disappears at the end of it, one does not know when this serial process of appearance and disappearance actually started or continue how long. Even during its existence it is in a state of flux. It has no permanent existence.
अश्वत्थम् एनम् सुविरूढमूलम्– the tree Aswatha (material world) which has strogly fixed root, should be cut off with a formidable tool of non-attachment. In this second line the lord teaches the technique for liberation from the tree of jagat or Maya. This tool is असङ्गशस्त्र, the tool of detachemnt or vairagya. How to use this tool? It is by indifference to the happenings in the world, give up the felings of “I” and “mine”, and refuse to be drawn to the desires. This way, one cuts off the feeling of separateness between the living entity and the Lord. When the attachments are severed, an attitude of sacred dispassion sets in, which is the prerequisite for
असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा –Asangashastra, tool of dispassion or Vairagya. Sanga (सङ्ग) means attachment, association. असङ्ग non-attachment. The Lord speaks about two tools to attain him. The first one is असङ्गशस्त्र the tool to cut off
attachment called dispassion. Second tool is तम् एव च आद्यम् पुरुषम् प्रपद्ये Upon taking refuge in Him, one will not return to this world again.
The axe of detachment can cut the roots of desires which are nourished by the three modes of material nature. The Lord further explains that this axe of detachment can only be
developed with the knowledge of the self. One has to realize that, “I am not this material body, but an eternal spiritual
being. The everlasting happiness that I pursue cannot be achieved with material things. My endeavors towards gratification of the material desires of this material body have no satiation, they are only getting me further trapped in the samsara or the web of life and death.” With detachment, one can stop further growth of the tree roots, and due to lack of nourishment, the tree starts to wither.
Sanga is like electric power. It attracts one who touches it. Longing for worldy joy is called sanga. Dispassion to worldy joy is asanga.
दृढेन छित्त्वा Totally annihilated.No remnant should beseen.
VERSE – 15: 04
After cutting the root of Samsara with an axe called knowledge, one must
surrender to the Lord who is the substatum of the world.
ततः पदं तत्परिमार्गितव्यं
यस्मिन्गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः ।
तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी ॥१५:४॥
tataḥ padaṁ tatparimārgitavyaṁ
yasmingatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥ |
tamēva cādyaṁ puruṣaṁ prapadyē
yataḥ pravr̥ttiḥ prasr̥tā purāṇī ||15:4||
ततः पदम् तत्परिमार्गितव्यम्
यस्मिन् गताः न निवर्तन्ति भूयः ।
तम् एव च आद्यम् पुरुषम् प्रपद्ये
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी ॥
ततः –then पदम् –goal तत् -that परिमार्गितव्यम् –should be sought यस्मिन् –to which गताः –having attained न –not निवर्तन्ति –return भूयः -again तम् –in that ऎव –even च –and आद्यम् –primeval पुरुषम् -purusha प्रपद्ये –I seek यतः –from which पुराणी –ancient प्रवृत्तिः –activity (the flow of this beginingless creation) प्रसृता –has progressed
Then one must search out the base of the tree, which is the Supreme Lord, from where streamed forth the activity of immemorial creation. Upon taking refuge in Him, one will not return to this world again.
ततः पदम् परिमार्गितव्यम् – Thereafter that goal or destination should be searched. ततः, Therafter means after having cut off the root of the tree of samsara with the axe of knowledge. पदम् has been used in Gita to mean the supreme state,
supreme goal or supreme abode. How to search that
यस्मिन् गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः -When you reach your destination of Brahman, you do not come back to samsara. Perpetual struggle ends once for all. After reaching there, no further travel is possible. All other destinations are temporary and we have to quit it after some time. When I say I was born in Kochi, studied in Chennai, worked in Indore for 8 years and I have now permanently settled in Bangaloe, all these destiantions are relative. But the destination of Brahman is permanent. There is no return from there, that padam, because, one merges with the absolute reality. Since the Lord is ever present, I also become ever present.
तम् ऎव च आद्यम् पुरुषम् प्रपद्ये यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी – One should always think; “I shall take refuge in that primeval person (Purusha) from whom this manifestation comes forth. Without Ishwara Bhakti nothing can be changed. I shall
surrender to that lord Purusha. पुरे वसति one who dwells in the body. पुरयति सर्वम् इति पुरुषः. one who pervades everything; one who indwells in the body. I surrender to that all pervading Purusha who is naturally in my heart. These two lines expresses surrender.
यतः पुराणी प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता pravraratti means emergence or
utpatti or creation. We do not know when the big bang started. This is sharanagati or the second tool. The first tool is discussed in the previous verse 15:03 as असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा.
VERSE – 15: 05
The Lord mentions five virtues of a muni who reaches the eternal goal.
अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः ।
द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञै –
र्गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत् ॥१५:५॥
adhyātmanityā vinivr̥ttakāmāḥ |
dvandvairvimuktāḥ sukhaduḥkhasaṁjñai –
rgacchantyamūḍhāḥ padamavyayaṁ tat ||15:5||
अध्यात्मनित्याः विनिवृत्तकामाः ।
गच्छंति अमूढाः पदम् अव्ययम् तत् ॥
निर्मानमोहाः –free from pride and delusion जितसङ्गदोषाः –victorious over the evil of attachment अध्यात्मनित्याः –dwelling constantly in the self विनिवृत्तकामाः their desires having completely retired दवन्दैः विमुक्ताः –free from the pairs of
opposites सुखदुःखसंज्ञैः –such as pleasure and pain गच्छन्ति – reach अमूढाः –the undeluded पदम् –goal, destination अव्ययम् -eternal तत् -that
That eternal goal is reached by the wise who are free from pride and delusion, who have conquered the evil of attachment, who constantly dwell in the supreme and who are freed from the pairs of opposites such as pleasure and pain.
In this verse the Lord prescribes five-fold virtues for complete surrender to the supreme Lord, who is at the base of the enigmatic Ashwatha tree.
निर्मानमोहाः –Humility . Mana is self-respect and oha is delusion. Nir Mana and Nir Moha free from pride and delusion. Amanitvam or vinaya or humiity is to get rid of vanity. Mana is arrogance, a bloated sense of pride and prejudice in oneself. Such a man thinks,” there is no one superior to me, no one powerful to me. I cannot do any mistake, all the wrongs are due to others, every one has to honour me”. Hanuman had zero egoism in him because he said, “मत्तः प्रत्यवरः कश्चिन्नस्ति सुग्रीव सन्निधौ” There is no other monkey inferior to me in the court of Sugriva.” A disdainful, egoistic man will have no room for improvement and growth. He is a narcist. Moha or delusion is an error in judgement. It is the absence of discretion and judiciousness. A man of material moha things that only persuit of wealth gives him happiness. Moksha means Moha Kshsaya.
Mana is a sign of Rajoguna and Moha is that of Tamas. Both the gunas have to be got rid off. Mana and Moha, both are the side effects of ignorance.
We have to strike a balance between our requirement of material prosperity and spiritual growth to make a good living and reduce the sense of separation from God. Dharma, artha, kama and mokhsa should not be lopside. It should be balanced.
जितसङ्गदोषाः – victorious over the evil of attachment. Sanga Dosha is an emotional attachment, addiction to external world. It is a risky propostion because the world is itself changing. You cannot lean upon something which is not permanent. Freedom from attachment is one of the important prerequisite for realization. The power of attachment is stronger than the power of gravity or the grounded electricity which attracts a person to it.
Thre are two types of sanga or attachments.
- ममत्व सङग- The attachment to power, property, progeny, etc
- कर्तुत्व सङग- the false sense that I was instrumental for the result, I should enjoy it.
Those who have won over these two evils is called जितसङ्गदोषाः Gita says, as a sequel to sanga or attachment are kama, krodha, mada, matsara, smratibhramsha and buddhinasha. Budhinashat vinashati – बुद्धि नाशात् विनश्यति every thing is lost due to a mind which is incapable of taking right decisions.
Satsaga or company of wise people gives rise to detachment leading to liberation. Shankaracharya says:
सत्संगत्वे निस्संगत्वं निस्संगत्वे निर्मोहत्वम् |
निर्मोहत्वे निश्चलतत्वं निश्चलतत्वे जीवन मुक्तिः |
अध्यात्मनित्याः –regular study of scriptures, ever dwelling in the self. He is concerned with God in his activities of body and mind. There are three types of men.
- Those who constantly think of God for ever.
- Some who practice divine activity for some time and
engage in worldy activities in the rest of the time.
- men who are ever engaged in worldy activity and never care for spiritual growth.
विनिवृत्तकामाः –One whose desires have been retired. One who has dropped all attachments to the world of objects
naturally will cease to entertain any desire.
दवन्दैः विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञै – Freed from the pairs of opposites.
The life is fraught with the opposites or dwandva. A man of firm mind is like the rock of Gibraltar which ever stays firm in spite the waves. The pairs of opposites are attachment and hatred, heat and cold, gain and greif, pleasure and pain. They cannot be avoided. They can only be faced. What cannot be cured has to be endured. For a sadhaka it is important to learn this technique.
गच्छन्ति अमूढाः– Amudha means one who is not deluded. That means one who is wise. A wise man is one who has met all the five conditions mentioned above. Such a man reaches
पदम् अव्ययम् तत् – Avyaya pada or Brahman. Previously Brahman was told as the root or source of the world. Now he has been described as the substratum of the world or destination of world. Padam means substratum as well as destination. Brahma prapti is moksha prapti. The seekers who follows the five fold discipline attains Brahman
VERSE – 15: 06
The wise after reaching me do not come back to the mortal world
न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः ।
यद्गत्वा न निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥१५:६॥
na tadbhāsayatē sūryō na śaśāṅkō na pāvakaḥ |
yadgatvā na nivartantē taddhāma paramaṁ mama ||15:6||
न तत् भासयते सूर्यः न शशाङ्कः न पावकः ।
यत् गत्वा न निवर्तन्ते तत् धाम परमम् मम ॥
न –not तत् –that भासयते -illumines सूर्यः –the sun न –not शशाङ्कः –the moon न –not पावकः –the fire यत् to which गत्वा –having gone न not निवर्तन्ते –return तत् –that धाम -abode परमम् –supreme मम -my
The sun does not shine there, nor does the moon, nor the fire. Having reached there, people do not come back; that is my abode.
This verse is based on a well known Mantra mentioned in Mundaka Upanishat, Brahadaranyaka upanishat and Kathopanishat.
न तत्र सुर्यो भाति न चन्द्र तारकं नेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतो॓ऽयमग्निः।
तमेव भान्तमनुभाति सर्वं तस्य भासा सर्वमिदमं विभाति॥
The fire does not shine there, the moon has no splendour, and the stars are blind, these ligtnings do not flash, then how shall this earthly fire (meaning camphor) burn? All that shines is but the shadow of this shining, all this universe is effulgent with this light.
Brahman is not objectifiable through any instrument of knowledge. Brahman cannot be illuminated by anything. In Vedanta light means that in whose presence things are known. In the light of this definition, every sense organ can be compared to a light. The ear is a light in whose presence sounds are heard. Nose is a light in whose presence smell is known. Any pramanam or instrument of knowledge is called a light.
न तत् भासयते सूर्यः न शशाङ्कः न पावकः – The sun does not shine there nor the moon or the fire emits light. The sun is the source of all light and acivity in this world. The moon and the stars emit the reflected light of sun and the fire needs fuel. All the luminaries have inducted light from the God. God alone is self-effulgent.
All these objects are Bhasya or reflected light but God alone is Bhasaka or the reflecting agent. The supreme being existed before the sun, moon and fire came into existence and will indeed continue to exist even after everything gets dissolved into the unmanifest.
यद्गत्वा न निवर्तन्ते –Having reached that destination, one does not return. If one travels round the globe, he will come back to the starting point. You can always buy a round ticket for a journey. But the realized yogi having reached there attains a permanent liberation and does not come back to the
temporal world. It is a permanent merger. A doll of salt which enters the sea cannot come back. A chic hatched from the egg cannot become an egg again.
तत् धाम परमम् मम -That is my abode. The literal meaning of dhama is an abode. In that case a doubt arises. If God
resides in one particular place he becomes a finite object. Here dhama is used in the sense of a phenomenon which is beyond time and space, and which is self-effulgent. That is my higher nature. In the first two and a half verses of this chapter, the Lord described kshara purusha, material nature or apara prakruti under the name of cosmic tree. Then in the second half of verse 3 and in verse 4 he described akshara purusha or para prakruti or jiva (embodied soul) who becomes a slave of the material body due to ahankara or
egoism. In ther verse 5 he prescribed the five-fold solution for the freedom from slavery . He said that self-surrender to the primal being as the only means of securing freedom from bondage. One who practices this technic reaches तत् धाम परमम् मम. He describes himself elsewhere as uttama Purusha. तत् धाम or that destination is not different from supreme person. Both are the same. When god has no gross body why does he need an abode?
In verses between ch. 7: 04 to7: 12 Krishna defines the
nature of Ishwara or God. There are two aspects of God. These are Para Prakruti and Apara Prakruti. Para Prakruti (परा प्रक्रति) is Nirguna Nirvikara Ishwara. It is the conscious life giving priniciple. Apara prakruti (अपरा प्रक्रति) is Saguna Savikara Ishwara. It is the inert material nature. Para Prakruti is vibrationless transcendental aspect and Apara Prakruti is kinetic and evolutionary aspect. These two aspects have complimentary and contradictory features. Both are beginingless. The essential differences in them are the following:
Conscious Principle, Chetana tatwa चेतन तत्व
Matter or material principle. Achetana tatwa अचेतन तत्व
No attributes or qualities. It is beyond qualities of satva, rajas and tamas. निर्गुण
Endowed with qualities
Not subject to change and modifications. निर्विकार
It is always in a state of flux. Undergoes changes, modifications, evolution and perishment. सविकार
It is spirit. Not subject to division. निर्विकल्प
Matter is subject to division. सविकल्प
VERSE – 15: 07
The soul is my integdral part. Abiding in Prakruti he is enmoured by it.
Brahman is Jiva – 7 To 11
ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः ।
मनःषष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति ॥१५:७॥
mamaivāṁśō jīvalōkē jīvabhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ |
manaḥṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakr̥tisthāni karṣati ||15:7||
मम एव अंशः जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः ।
मनःषष्ठानि इन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति ॥
मम एव –my own अंशः –particle जीवलोके –in the world of life, the living organisms ,dwelling place of jivatma viz. the body– gross, causal and suble जीवभूतः –having become a soul सनातनः –eternal मनः -the mind षष्ठानि –the six senses including the mind इन्दियाणि –the five sense organs (of perception) प्रकृतिस्थानि –abiding in prakruti कर्षति –draws around itself
The eternal individual soul (jiva, Jivatma) in the body of living beings is, indeed, my integral part. Abiding in Prakruti it draws to itself to the great six: five sense organs and the mind.
मम एव अंशः– The jiva is Part and parcel of me. If the soul is a fragment of God, it can be argued that God is divisible. Then he automatically becomes a matter which is not the case. God is eternal indivisble pure consciousness. God is the ocean and jiva or individual soul is a wave. Just as the son is a fragment of father, the jiva is also an amsha or a part of God. The word mama (मम) should not be confused with a God of physical body. Brahman or Ishwara or Paramatma is a formless, attributeless, absolute consciousness. (अरूप निर्गुण ब्रह्म चैतन्य)
सनातनः जीवभूतः –the eternal spirit having become the soul or jivatma. The soul is nothing but a fragment of spirit and both of them are eternal. Just as the indivisible vast space appears like a pot space or a room space, the eteranal God appears as different jivas or souls. The jiva or soul is a reflection of absolute consciousness (चिदाभास). It has no independent existence apart from Brahman, just as the mirror- reflected rays of the sun have no independent existence.
मनःषष्ठानि इन्दियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति –The five senses and the mind being the sixth sense are drawn towards the prakruti. The indriyas or the five senses of perception are
evolutes of prakruti. The physical body is also an evolute of prakruti. By the power of maya, jiva which is cloaked in nature’s garb of a physical body fitted with five exernal senses (jnyanedriyas) and one internal sense, the mind (चित्त, बुद्धि, अन्तःकरण). Therefore he is also drawn by the prakruti. In technical language these six instruments together are called subtle body (सूक्ष्म शरीर) and the jiva is called the causal body (कारण शरीर). These six senses are the soul’s instruments of communication with the world of relativity. The soul rests in the multitude of physical body of beasts and men and makes them sentient.
So essentially all the beings are a spark of the devine but not sinners. शैतान के औलाद नहि भगवान के हो; अम्रतस्य पुत्राः Bound by the limited and limiting medium of senses and mind the jiva feels himself isolated from God and drawn to the prakruti. Motivated by maya, he sustains this separation by misuse of his free choise. When at last he refuses to continue longer in this bondage, he co-operates eagerly with the perpetual pull of God and get nearer to him.
There is a story.
A queen in a distant kingdom gives birth to a baby boy. The astrologers warn the king that he would die at the very sight of the baby. So, the king orders that the baby be removed to a distant forest. A washerman who happened to be there, takes pity on the newborn and brings him home. The kid grew up as a washerman. One day, as he was tending his donkey a wise man passed by. He was struck by the features of the kid and the life lines on his palm and suspected him to be of royal blood. On enquiry the washerman told him how he got the boy and king acknowledged that he had deserted the kid. Now to our subject. Was the kid who was thought to be a washerman so far was indeed a washerman or a prince ? Ajnyana or lack of knowledge of the ancestry of the child was responsibe for wrong idea. Ajnyana due to the association with matter causes us to think that we are cut off from God and that we are mere mortals. So tend to look after the donekey called Indriyas. When the veil of adhyasa is removed, we realize that we are nothing but paramatma.
महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥१३:६॥In the verse 13:06 the Lord speaks about ten senses and on the top of it the one sense of mind, and five objects of senses. However in 13:07 he only mentions मनःषष्ठानि इन्दियाणि, the five senses the the sixth one the mind. The five organs of action (कर्मेन्द्रिय) are left out because they are subservient to the sense organs.
VERSE – 15: 08
At the time of death, the soul carries the subtle body
(mind and senses) and enter a new body
शरीरं यदवाप्नोति यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः ।
गृहित्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गन्धानिवाशयात् ॥१५:८॥
śarīraṁ yadavāpnōti yaccāpyutkrāmatīśvaraḥ |
gr̥hitvaitāni saṁyāti vāyurgandhānivāśayāt ||15:8||
शरीरम् यत् अवाप्नोति यत् च अपि उत्क्रामति ईश्वरः ।
गृहित्वा ऎतानि संयाति वायुः गन्धान् इव आशयात् ॥
शरीरम् –the body यत् –when अवाप्नोति -obtains यत् -when च –and अपि –also उत्क्रामति – leaves ईश्वरः – the Lord of material body viz. the embodied soul गृहित्वा –taking एतानि –these viz.the mind and five senses संयाति –goes away वायुः –the wind गन्धान्–the perfumes इव -as आशयात् –from their seats viz.flowers. etc,.
As the air carries fragrance from place to place, so does the embodied soul carry the mind and senses with it, when it leaves an old body and enters a new one.
ईश्वरः – the controller and lord of the body. This refers to the Jiva or embodied soul. He is called Lord because being an integral part of the spirit, hIs presence makes the body alive and his absence makes the body dead. JIva is a reflected version of the spirit. In the previous verse, the Lord says “ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः”.The soul is my own integral part.
शरीरम् यत् अवाप्नोति – When he acquires a new body. It could be either a human body or an inferior body. Evolution need not be uniform from lower to higher. The journey need not always be upward. It is Like a snake and ladder game where your status could be upgraded or downgraded according to your karma. Bad karma leads to downfall and descent. Spiritual evolution is not linear like the Darwenian theory of survival of fittest.
यत् च अपि उत्क्रामति – when he leaves the physical body at the time of death.
गृहित्वा एतानि संयाति –He goes having gathered ‘these’, This demonstrative pronoun obviously refers to मनःषष्ठानि इन्द्रियाणि the five sense organs and the mind (Sukshama sharira) referred to in the previous shloka (सूक्ष्म शरीर, लिंग शरीर). As the subtle body the abode of mind and six senses and other principles accompanies jiva in its rounds of incarnation endowing each new physical body with life and intelligence. At the departure of the subtle body, the physical body becomes inert. That is why the jiva is called immortal.
वायुः र्गन्धान् इव आशयात् – the gathering action of the soul or jiva is smartly compared to the action of wind which gathers sweet fragrance of the flowers. Vayu or air is compared to jiva, flower to the physical body, fragrance to sukshma sharira or subtle body. The invisible vayu carries invisible fragrance from the visible flower. The invisible jiva carries the invisible mind from the visible body.
VERSE – 15: 09
The jiva enjoys the sense objects throught the senses and mind
श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणमेव च ।
अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते ॥१५:९॥
śrōtraṁ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṁ ca rasanaṁ ghrāṇamēva ca |
adhiṣṭhāya manaścāyaṁ viṣayānupasēvatē ||15:9||
श्रोत्रम् चक्षुः स्पर्शनम् च रसनम् घ्राणम् एव च ।
अधिष्ठाय मनः च अयम् विषयान् उपसेवते ॥
श्रोत्रम् –the ear चक्षुः –the eye स्पर्शनम् –the organ of touch च and रसनम् – the organ of taste घ्राणम् – the organ of smell एव -even च –and मनः–the mind अधिष्ठाय –dwelling in च –and अयम् –this jivatma विषयान् –the objects of senses उपसेवते
Preciding over the faculties of ear, the eyes, touch, taste and smell as also the mind, he, the jiva enjoys the sense objects.
श्रोत्रम् चक्षुः स्पर्शनम् च रसनम् घ्राणम् मनः च ।
The faculties of ear, eye,touch, taste and smell and mind. This represents the subtle body. Jiva represents the causal body. The faculties include the knowleddge senses and
अधिष्ठाय मनः च अयम् विषयान् उपसेवते ॥
The jivatma, having settled down in the body, experiences the sense pleasures.
अयम् ईश्वरः –this Lord or the controller of the body and mind. This refers to Jiva or individual soul who enjoys sense objects using six sensory faculties of, touch, taste, sound, sight, smell, and mind. The divine jiva behaves like an ordinary mortal an account of maya which deludes him in two ways
1.आवरण शक्ति -Veiling power or the power concealment which viels the real nature of things. It is the buddhi or intellect which has to understand. A thick shroud of ignorance comes in between buddhi and jiva just like a cloud can veil the sun which is many times bigger than earth. It conceals the Brahman from Jiva.
- विक्षेप शक्ति -the power of projection, distracting power. It projects the illusion of plurality of the world. The tendency to drive away the mind from divine thoughts to frivolous ideas at the time of meditation
The jiva becomes an individual soul due the shakti of maya.
विषयानुपसेवते experinces various pleasures and pain. He identifies with the body, senses and mind and gets तादात्म्य.
VERSE – 15: 10
Ignorant man cannot see the soul enjoying sense pleasures ,while staying in
the body or going away. It is nly the wise who are able to perceive it.
उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वापि भुञ्जानं वा गुणान्वितम् ।
विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः ॥१५:१०॥
utkrāmantaṁ sthitaṁ vāpi bhuñjānaṁ vā guṇānvitam |
vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñānacakṣuṣaḥ ||15:10||
उत्क्रामन्तम् स्थिम् वा अपि भुञ्जानम् वा गुणान्वितम् ।
विमूढाः न अनुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः ॥
उत्क्रामन्तम् –departing from the body स्थितम् – dwelling in the body वा –or अपि –also भुञ्जानम् –enjoying the objects of senses वा –or गुणान्वितम् –united with the three gunas विमूढाः –the deluded न -not अनुपश्यन्ति –do not see him पश्यन्ति –
behold him ज्ञानचक्षुषः –those endowed with the eye of wisdom.
An ignorant man cannot perceive the jiva departing from the body (transmigration of jiva) or staying in the body and enjoying sense pleasures due to the veiling nature of the Gunas associated with Prakruti. But those who have an eye of Self-knowledge are able to realize it.
उत्क्रामन्तम् स्थिम् वा अपि भुञ्जानम् वा गुणान्वितम् –Four features of jiva are mentioned; departing from the body, dwelling in the body, enjoying the sense pleasures and united with three gunas which are evolutes of prakruti.
Arjuna, Jiva is a part and parcel of me. He is eternal
consciousness. Due to contact with body and indriyas, he
behaves as if he belongs to the Prakruti. He enjoys the jys and sorrows of the world. Here is the verse
ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः।
मनःषष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति।।15.7।।
विमूढाः न अनुपश्यन्ति –An ordinary man whose perception is a matrix of three Gunas looks no further than the surface
appearance and hence sees no divine significance in his life. He does no the presence of the soul in the body. He thinks that the body, senses and mind are all that make him. So, he thinks, I am the doer and enjoyer of the pleasures. Else where the Lord calls such people as जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्थाः.
Who is an ignorant man man? There is a storey for this.
- A father and his son were travlling to a distant place. In the night they rested under a large tree. Early in the morning, the father said, “son get up, the sun is rising” There was an owl and her little owlet living above in a branch of the tree. The owlet said, “Mom, what is a sun? They are speaking about him”. The mother said, “there is no sun, close your eyes and go to sleep”. The owl who keeps the eyes shut is called ignorant or vimudha. A vimudha person keeps his eyes shut to
the fact that it is the jiva who is the driver of life.
2, It is only the ignorant kids that say moon is moving whereas it is the cloud that is actually moving. Similarly as you sit in a train, it appears that your stationery train is moving whereas it the train on the other platform that is in motion.
- You can do this experiment. Spread out a red sheet of paper on a table. Keep a clear crystal on it. The crystal appears red. This is called Tadatmya dosha in spiritual language. That means an account of the association with the red sheet, the white crystal appear red. Similary an account of the association with the body and mind, desires and ahankara, the jiva which is indeed the absolute self appears as the doer and enjoyer.
In the second example the quality of movement was imposed on a stationery train and in the third one the quality of
colour was superimposed on a white crystal. Both the objects were free from the imposed character. This is called āropa
(आरॊप) or impostion. An ordinary man imposes a quality in the atman. The fact is atman is free from any quality, time and space.
पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः – A wise man on the other hand sees absolute consciousness without any impostion or aropa of a
quality or trait. He knows that the real charcter of the self even when it is connected with Gunas of Prakruti has no modification or change. He realizes that the self is beyond prakruti, pure, unattached and is same as consciousness
itself. He realizes the self when it is departing from or dwelling in the body or enjoying sense objects.
VERSE – 15: 11
A yogi of pure mind and heart who endeavors to get liberation,
experiences Brahman within himself
यतन्तो योगिनश्चैनं पश्यन्त्यात्मन्यवस्थितम् ।
यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यन्त्यचेतसः ॥१५:११॥
yatantō yōginaścainaṁ paśyantyātmanyavasthitam |
yatantō’pyakr̥tātmānō nainaṁ paśyantyacētasaḥ ||15:11||
यतन्तः योगिनः च एनम् पश्यंति आत्मनि अवस्थितम् ।
यतन्तः अपि अकृतात्मानः न एनम् पश्यंति अचेतसः ॥
यतन्तः –striving for perfection योगिनः –the yogis (seekers) च –and एनम् –this soul पश्यन्ति –realize आत्मनि –in their body अवस्थितम् –dwelling यतन्तः अपि –even though striving अकृतात्मानः –whose minds are not purified न –not एनम् –this soul पश्यन्ति –realize अचेतसः –the ignorant
The yogis, striving for liberation, behold the self abiding in themselves but those who are unpurified and undisciplined are unable to perceive him inspite of their struggle.
यतन्तः योगिनः –The yogis striving for perfection. They are the sadhakas of an advanced type whose mind is pure and amenable to their control and who have been referred to as endowed with eye of wisdom (ज्ञानचक्षुषः) in the previous verse. A yogi withdraws his mind from the sense objects and merges with it with atman. He practices shravana, manana, and nidhidhysana. He recognizes Brahman within himself and outside. He recognizes atman as the core of his being
pervading his own consciousness. He can recognize transmigration of the atman, (Jiva) .
Yoginah (योगिनः), the yogis, plural noun. The descriminate, discerning people when they see a moving fan, recognise the physical fan as well as the electricity, its motive power
behind it; similarly in a living being they recognise the matter or the physical body as well as Brahman who is present in the body as jiva as or reflected consciousness.
एनम् – अयम् ईश्वरः – This self. In the previous stanza the subject of soul or jiva was introduced who is nothing but
पश्यन्ति आत्मनि अवस्थितम् –Realize the self who is enshrined in their heart that means the core of his body. This is the अध्यात्म स्वरूप of the Lord. Such seekers who are striving for perfection discern the Brahman in atmani or in their body and mind. In addition to the physical body they also see the chetana or consciosnes behind the body. Both of these are separate entities.
अकृतात्मानः –unrefined men devoid of wisdom. They have not practised disinterested action and purified their mind through devotion. Men of rajasik and tamasik gunas have their mind tained with impurities.
यतन्तः अपि अकृतात्मानः न एनम् पश्यन्ति अचेतसः –Those who are unrefined and ignorant in spite their endeavour fail to realize the self. Here the lord emphasies the need for purity of mind and study of scriptures alongwith spiritual desciplenes to
अचेतसः –ignorant. This includes those that are simply
unaware and those that refuse to be aware. There are people that live heedlessly throughout life after life, never considering the deeper implications of their existence. Even though they have an intellectual belief in God, they do not live life in the perspective of that truth.
Krishna is not despising some people, or threatening the
spiritually unworthy people, but he is only emphasising that their preparation is not enough. They have to evolve to
perfection by practice of karmayoga, dhyanayoga, and jnyanayoga to be eligible for the divine vision.
VERSE – 15: 12
The light of the sun, moon and fire are the glory of God
Brahman is Jagat (Prishable World) ……. 12 To 15
आधिदैविक स्वरूप of Ishwara
यदादित्यगतं तेजो जगद्भासयतेऽखिलम् ।
यच्चन्द्रमसि यच्चाग्नौ तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम् ॥१५:१२॥
yadādityagataṁ tējō jagadbhāsayatē’khilam |
yaccandramasi yaccāgnau tattējō viddhi māmakam ||15:12||
यत् आदित्यगतम् तेजः जगत् भासयते अखिलम् ।
यत् चन्द्रमसि यत् च अग्नौ तत् तेजः विद्धि मामकम् ॥
यत् –which आदित्यगतम् –existing in the sun तेजः –light जगत् –the world भासयते –illumines अखिलम् –entire यत् –which चन्द्रमसि –exists in the moon यत् –which च –and अग्नौ –in the fire तत् –that तेजः –effulgence विद्धि -know मामकम् –mine
The light of the sun which illumines the whole world, the light from the moon and light in the fire—know this radiance to be mine.
The Lord explained in 6th to 11th verses, that he lives in the form of Jiva-the individual experiencer of the world. From 12th onwards upto 15th verse the Lord says that he alone is in the form of inert universe or jagat as well. It should be remembered that in these verses when the lord says “I”Or ममैवांशो we should understand the meaning as the absolute formless Brahman or consciousness (अरूप, निर्गुण ब्रह्म चैतन्य) but not as Krishna, the avatar.
यत् आदित्यगतम् तेजः यत् चन्द्रमसि यत् च अग्नौ -the enegy which is residing in the sun, moon and fire belongs to me. These three luminaries are material in nature. Matter is inert and has no effulgence. Their energy is a reflected energy (chidabhasa) of the Brahman. Mirror has no original power of radiance . But If focused on on sunrays, it can enlighten a dark room. These three luminaries as well as the organs presided over by these Gods, Viz, the eye, mind and speech have no liht of their own, but their effulgence is barrowed from the respective daities. (चिदाभास)
तत् तेजः विद्धि मामकम् -know that light to be my infinite manifestation. The light in the sun, moon, fire, lamps, candles etc., the energy behind electricity, volatility of the petroleum gas are nothing but the manifestation of the supreme being. It is his glory. It is the light behind all lights. Without the power of supreme being, fire is unable to burn a blade of grass. This light of the Supreme Being cannot be realized and seen unless one has completely stilled and strengthened the mind, purified the intellect, and developed the power of will and visualization. Similarly our power to feel by touch, see, smell, hear and taste are also due to the light given by the consciousness.
The message to us is that we must remember God when we see his glory. By continous contemplation we should be able to have a quantum change of perception from upadhi drishti to vastu drashti.
We may recall here what the Lord had said in 6th verse. न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः ‘The sun, moon and the fire are not able to light up my ‘abode’. It is because the very power of illumination is granted by God.
There is a storey to illustrate this point. A rich man had constructed a large mansion. He had installed chandeliers in the portico, drawing room and living room. Still, all rooms of the building were dark. Why? the reason beng that it was not connected with electricity. Even the big bulbs do not emit light unless there is power. Similarly the lord has built a big universe. The sun, moon and the fire are the chandeliers installed by him. He has connected them with unending high tension power so that they may ever emit light and heat.
There is another beautiful storey in Kenopanishat to demonstrate that without the light of consciousness all the faculties and devatas become futile. Once there was a big battle beween the devatas and Rakshasas. The devatas won the battle with the grace of God. They forgot God and became longheaded aout their valour. They were boasting about their own prowess. God wanted to teach them a lesson. When the court of indra was proceeding, he appeared before them in the form an outlandish figure of Yaksha. Indra sent the devata of fire to drive away this figure. The fire warned him, “Please move away or else I shall burn you”. The yaksha said, “O.K. Can you burn this piece of stray?” The fire tried hard with all his might. But fe failed. Then came the devata of air. He also could not blow away the straw. Indra was frightened. He came up to the Yaksha and said, “Respected one, Please tell me who are you”, Then the Lord appeared before him told of the arrogance of the devatas. He reminded them that but for the light of consciousness behind, all their activities fall flat and futile.
VERSE – 15: 13
I support the earth with my power. I become moon to nourish all plants
आधिभौतिक स्वरूप of Iswara : God is power
गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा ।
पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः ॥१५:१३॥
gāmāviśya ca bhūtāni dhārayāmyahamōjasā |
puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ sōmō bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ ||15:13||
गाम् आविश्य च भूतानि धारयामि अहम् ओजसा ।
पुष्णामि च औषधीः सर्वाः सोमः भूत्वा रसात्मकः ॥
गाम् –the earth आविश्य –permeating च –and भूतानि –all beings धारयामि –I sustain अहम् –I ओजसा –by my vital power पुष्णामि –I support च –and औषधीः –the herbs सर्वाः –all सोमः –the moon भूत्वा –having become रसात्मकः –full of nectar or juice
Permeating the earth, I support all beings with my vital power and becoming the nectarine moon, I nourish all plants .
गाम् आविश्य च भूतानि धारयामि अहम् ओजसा -Having entered the earth, I support all beings. The earth supports all beings and things. It is due to the supporting nature of God that the earth does not dissolve into water, or fly away by storm. It is able to hold itself in the space. The gravitational power of earth is the glory of God. All sustaining power in the universe is the vital power of God. Ojas means vitality, vigor, luster, splendor, and energy, including spiritual energy. It is the power which accomplishes all things in the cosmos. It is even the power within the light of the moon, the power that governs the growth of plants. It is not just Divine Power, it is Divinity Itself, for God himself is Power.
पुष्णामि च औषधीः सर्वाः सोमः भूत्वा रसात्मकः -I become the juicy moon and nourish the plants
औषधीः- This word covers the entire vegetable kingdom consisting of trees, creeper, gras etc.
In 15:07, the Lord said the soul in the living orgnisms is my own part and parcel. “ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः” That is the Adhyatmika aspect (अध्यात्मिक) that jivatma and paramatma are the same. In the previous verse, viz., 15:12 when the lord said “तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम्”the light of sun, moon and fire are mine. Here the Lord referred to his Daivika glory (आधि दैविक). Now he explains his glory of Bhautika (आधि भौतिक) phenomenon by saying “गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा “.
In the previous verse the Lord showed that he is the essence of light and now in this shloka he shows that he is the essence of energy.
VERSE – 15: 14
I become Vaishwanara and digest four types of food
अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहमाश्रितः ।
प्राणापानसमायुक्तः पचाम्यन्नं चतुर्विधम् ॥१५:१४॥
ahaṁ vaiśvānarō bhūtvā prāṇināṁ dēhamāśritaḥ |
prāṇāpānasamāyuktaḥ pacāmyannaṁ caturvidham ||15:14||
अहम् वैश्वानरः भूत्वा प्राणिनाम् देहम् आश्रितः ।
प्राणापानसमायुक्तः पचामि अन्नम् चतुर्विधम् ॥
अहम् –I वैश्वानरः –the fire called Vaishwanara भूत्वा –having become प्राणिनाम् –of living beings देहम्-body आश्रितः –lodged in प्राणापानसमायुक्तः –asociated with Prana (exhalation) and apana (inhalation) पचामि –I digest अन्नम् -food चतुर्विधम् –four-fold
Becoming the digestive fire (Vaishwanara), I abide in the body of all creatures; and acting through Prana and Apana, I digest the food consumed by them in four ways.
अहम् वैश्वानरः भूत्वा प्राणिनाम् देहम् आश्रितः –Having become the digestive fire in the body of living beings: God digests the food of all beings in the stomach. He becomes Vaiswhanara or the internal digestive fire which cooks the food with the help of acids and enzymes. It is the physiological function of breaking down complex food into simple food. The food becomes bioviable or capable of absorption. The food is converted into different tissues or Dhatus like रस, रक्त, मांस मज्जा and वीर्य. The ealier dhatu gets converted into the next dhatu by metabolism which is a part of vaishwanara. After eating food when when we go to sleep, Vaishwanara continues with his work.
प्राणापानसमायुक्तः पचामि अन्नम् चतुर्विधम् –Joining with Prana and Apana, I digest four kinds of food. The vital breaths of Prana is responsible for digestion and Apana for circulation.
अन्नम् चतुर्विधम् -There are four types of food:
भक्ष्य : (Solid foods that is required Masticated before swallowing) e.g., bread, roti, rice, cake etc.
भोज्य: (that can be directly swallowed without being masticated ) e.g, soup, kheer,curry, milk, curds etc.
लेह्य : (that is Licked with the tongue) e.g., Honey, chatni, sauce. sugar, jaggery etc.
चूष्य: (that which is sucked) e.g., juice of sugar-cane, coke etc.
What tht Lord seeks to convey in the second half of this verse is that the digestive and assimilating power of all beings is a part of devine energy.
This shloka is traditionally sung while partaking food.
The Lord has declared in the foregoing stanzas that the illuminating, sustaining, nourishing, digesting and all other powers is a part of his own energy. (ओजस्)
VERSE – 15: 15
The glory of God
सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि संनिविष्टो
मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनं च ।
वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो
वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम् ॥१५:१५॥
sarvasya cāhaṁ hr̥di saṁniviṣṭō
mattaḥ smr̥tirjñānamapōhanaṁ ca |
vēdaiśca sarvairahamēva vēdyō
vēdāntakr̥dvēdavidēva cāham ||15:15||
सर्वस्य च अहम् ह्रुदि संनिविष्टः
मत्तः स्मृति ज्ञानम् अपोहनम् च ।
वेदैः च सर्वैः अहम् एव वेद्यः
वेदान्तकृत् वेदवित् एव च अहम् ॥
सर्वस्य –of all च –and अहम् – I हृदि – in the heart संनिविष्टः –seated (as the inner controller) मत्तः –(proceed) from me स्मृतिः- memory ज्ञानम् –knowledge अपोहनम् –the faculty of reasoning, dispelling doubts च –and सर्वैः वेदैः –through all Vedas च –and–by all अहम् एव –I alone वेद्यः –worth knowing वेदान्तकृत् –the author of the Vedanta वेदवित् –the knower of the Veda एव –even च –and अहम् -I
Also, I am seated in the heart of all beings as the inner controller; and from me come memory and knowledge, as well as their loss. Verily, I am that which is to be known through the Vedas; indeed I am the author of Vedanta and knower of the Vedas.
सर्वस्य च अहम् हृदि संनिविष्टः – I am seated in the heart of all beings. Heart does not mean the physical heart but the pscyhe or the mind of the people. Heart also means the core of the individual. God or Brahman is present everywhere, in all beings. He need not be sought out elsewhere. He is right in our mind. He is our core. This can be realized by a yogi who has conquered desires, and achieved purity of mind. I am the Pramata, pramana and prameya.
देवो देवलय प्रोक्तो जीवो देवः सनातनः–
Body is the temple of God.
मत्तः स्मृतिःज्ञानम् अपोहनम् च -From me are memory, the knowledge and the faculty of dispelling doubts. He empowers memory by which perceptions and cognitions are gathered and held. Accumulation of this is called knowledge. He is also the deluding power of maya’s hypnotizing distortion of these powers.
ऊहन –Oohana is a general term covering doubt, misapprehension, and other forms of fallacious reasoning and judgement. (वितन्डवाद, कुतर्क) The removal of such doubts is called अपोहन (Apohana). It is God himself, the inner ruler seated in heart of all.
वेदैः च सर्वैः अहम् एव वेद्यः वेदान्तकृत् वेदवित् एव च अहम् –Whatever is taught in the Vedas no matter whether it relates to ritual (कर्म), worship (उपासन) or spiritual knowledge (ज्ञान); they ultimately teaches the way to achieve Brahhman or
Ishwara. They deal with non-dual immortality. Vedanta means understanding the real meaning or intention of Vedas. He is the author of Vedas, and the knower of Vedas (कर्मकान्ड, ज्ञानकान्ड, उपासन). The physical sciences deal with the objects of the cosmic play, but the metaphysical science of Veda deals with the cosmic player.
VERSE – 15: 16
Brhman is Purushottama … 16 To 18
Kshara are the beings in material realm. They are perishable.
Imperishable akshsara is the soul or jiva
द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च ।
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ॥१५:१६॥
dvāvimau puruṣau lōkē kṣaraścākṣara ēva ca |
kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭasthō’kṣara ucyatē ||15:16||
द्वौ इमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरः च अक्षरः एव च ।
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थः अक्षरः उच्यते ॥
द्वौ –two इमौ –(two) these पुरुषौ –(two) Purushas लोके –in the world क्षरः –perishable च –and अक्षरः –imperishable एव even च –and क्षरः –the perishable सर्वाणि –all भूतानि –bodies of beings कूटस्थः –the immutable referring to Jivatma or embodied soul अक्षरः –the imperishable उच्यते –is called
There are two kinds of beings in creation, the kṣhara (perishable) and the akṣhara (imperishable). The perishable are all beings in the material realm. The imperishable is the kutashta or jivatma purusha.
द्वौ इमौ पुरुषौ लोके –There are two aspects of God, the kshara and akshara purusha.
क्षर पुरुष or destructible matter or jagat. The manifest matter is the kinetic aspect of God. It is insentient subject to division, have gunas, and are ever changing. It is the visible or perceptible universe. The basic elements or panchabhutas viz., Akasha, vayu, agni, aapaah, and Prathivi, the Gunas with their evolutes. The material universe and the physical bodies of the living beings are all included in this list. The Lord has described in first two and a half verses, of 15th chapter the mysterious inverted tree of world. नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा , the world of maya has no beginning or no end. The manifest matter or jagat is also none other than Brahman or Ishwara as described in verses 12 to 15 of this chapter.
- अक्षर पुरुष , The self or the soul. the indestructible soul or jiva. This is the transcendent aspect of God. When he is
embodied he is called Jiva as described in verses 7 to 11. Jiva or soul has illuminating, sustaining, nourishing, digesting powers which is a part of his inherent vitality (ओजस्). He is the consciousness or chetana. He enlivens all beings.; his abscence make them dead. The difference between the soul and spirit is that the soul being embodied by prakruti is lured by the senses and therefore it feels to be cut off from God.
अक्षर पुरुष is distinct from matter or jagat. He is not a part, product or property of matter. He is independent of matter. He is sentient or chetana, has no property or gunas, not subject to change, that means he ever remains the same; Nirivikalpa. The self or soul is also a spark of God. The soul is also called Kutasha. कूटस्थः अक्षरः उच्यते because amongst the changing world , only he ramians changeless.
The subject of matter and soul has been discussed in Gita at several places, but in each reference different technical names are used. Here is a list.
Ch. 15 :01
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि – any living entity beginning from the first created Brahma, down to a microscopic organism, is changing its body, mind and intellect. Therefore they are all fallible or Kshara.
कूटस्थः अक्षरः उच्यते – The Kutastha is called Akshara. Akshara means imperishable, immutable. He has no growth, decay and destruction. Brahman is normally referred to as “Kutashtha,” which means changeless, immutable. In this verse Krishna has called the soul also Kutastha because the soul is nothing but a spark of Brahman but encased inside the body. ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः ॥१५:७॥. Kuta means the anvil in the smithshop which is used to beat and shape the red hot iron. Although the shape of iron changes, the
anvil remains changeless. The self in the midst of changing phenomenon, remains changeless. Just as the screen on which a motion picture is projected remains unchanged and does not emotionally involve with the charactrers and plot of the play, the soul remains changless. Therefore he is also called elsewhere as उपद्रष्टा, अनुमन्ता.
VERSE – 15: 17
उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः ।
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ॥१५:१७॥
uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ paramātmētyudāhr̥taḥ |
yō lōkatrayamāviśya bibhartyavyaya īśvaraḥ ||15:17||
उत्तमः पुरुषः तु अन्यः परमात्मा इति उदाहृतः ।
यः लोकत्रयम् आविश्य बिभर्ति अव्ययः ईश्वरः ॥
उत्तमः –the supreme पुरुषः –Purusha तु –but अन्यः –another, other than both these परमात्मा –the supreme spirit इति –thus उदाहृतः -called यः –who लोकत्रयम् –the three worlds आविश्य –having entered बिभर्ति –sustains अव्ययः –imperishable ईश्वरः –Lord.
But there exists another, the Highest Being, designated the “Supreme Spirit” (paramatma) the eternal Lord who, permeats the three worlds, and upholds them.
उत्तमः पुरुषः तु अन्यः –Anya different principle other than kshara and akshara, Uttama Pursuhah. निर्गुण, निर्विकार, निर्विकल्प, सत्य ( Nirguna Nirivkara Nirvikalpa and Satya).
In 15: 04 the lord calls this purusha as तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये. पूर्णम् अनेन सर्वम् इति पुरुषोत्तमः
The dualist philosophers propagate that according to Lord in this verse, there are three Purushas, kshara, akshara and
uttama Purusha. These three are different. They claim that this statement is a clear disapproval of the claim of non-dualits that all the three purushas are the same.
The non-dualits counter this argument. They say that उत्तमः पुरुषः तु अन्यः means he has a different nature. He is different from the material nature. He is different from the soul in the sense that he is not engulfed by anatma and avidya.
The Lord has said In 15:07, ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः “ the soul or jiva is my integral part”.
परमात्मा इति उदाहृतः – In all scriptures he is called paramatma or supreme person.
यः लोकत्रयम् आविश्य -– pervades all the three universes or there worlds of जाग्रत्, स्वप्न, सुषुप्ति. Wood pervades all furniture and lends existence to furniture. Water pervades all waves and lends existence to the waves. Minus Uttma Purusha there can be neither kshara purusha nor akshara purusha. No matter or energy is possible without consciousness.
बिभति अव्ययः ईश्वरः –sustains, supports, lends them existence. eventhough consciousness pevades the changing matter, it does not undergo any change; Just as the stationery movie screen does not change’ although a lot of activities go on its surface. The consciousness is not affected or
tormented by whatever happens to the material world. It is just a spectator. Upadrashta, anumanta etc. The body may undergo lot of changes or die but the consciousness does not change. He is the master; but not a slave of matter. He has independent existence. So he is called avyahah.
Swami Paramahamsa Yogananda of LA, California gives an interesting commentery. He compares the invisible vibratory force of Prakruti to Holy Ghost, “tat” aspect of God or the Kutashta or the soul. “Uttama Purusha or supreme Person”, he says, is “the Father aspect of Krishna or Christ consciousness”. Father or Sat aspect of reality has been compared to absolute Brahman, God or Ishwara. He is the ultimate self, supreme spirit and the transcendent cause of all.
VERSE – 15: 18
I am higher than the matter and soul. So, I am celebrated as the superior person
यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः ।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥१५:१८॥
yasmātkṣaramatītō’hamakṣarādapi cōttamaḥ |
atō’smi lōkē vēdē ca prathitaḥ puruṣōttamaḥ ||15:18||
यस्मात् क्षरम् अतीतः अहम् क्षरात् अपि च उत्तमः ।
अतः अस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥
यस्मात् –because क्षरम् –the perishable अतीतः –beyond, transcending अहम् –I अक्षारत् –than the imperishable (soul) अपि –also च –and उत्तमः –superior अतः –therefore अस्मि –I am लोके –in the world वेदे –in the Vedas च –too प्रथितः –declared पुरुषोत्तमः –supreme person
I transcend the perishable world of matter and I am even higher than the imperishable soul; I am therefore celebrated as the purushttama (the Highest Purusha) in the world as well as in the Vedas.
यस्मात् क्षरम् अतीतः अहम् –becasue I am beyond the field of perishable matter which is represented by the mystery of inverted Ashwatha tree. Pure consciousness is superior to manifest matter and even unmanifest matter. Brahman is unconnected with and entirely different from the kshara purusha. In other words he is wholly unattached to the entire world of matter which is nothing but a conglomeration of three gunas and prakruti. They are perishable.
अहम् अक्षारत् अपि च उत्तमः–The Lord does not say अहम् अक्षारत् अपि अतीतः or “ I am beyond the jiva or soul” but he says “ I am higher than the soul”. But the Lord has said In 15:07, ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः “ the soul or jiva is my integral part”. Is there any contradiction in these two statements? No.There is no contradiction between these statements. What the Lord means is that since soul although an integral part of Lord, is wrapped in and enamoured by prakruti. It blindly fallows all its commands and temptations.. But pure consciousness is free, uncontrolled and all-powerful. He is the master but not a slave.
अहम् उत्तमः I am superior to. अहम् means I, Krishna. It is first person, singular. He is speaking here as the son of Devaki and Vasudeva but not as Brahman. If Krishna is superior to Prakruti what about gods like Rama, Ganapati, Shiva and other gods and goddesses? They are all different manifestations of the same Bhagavān, the Supreme Divine Personality and should not be considered separate.
लोके च वेदे च –both in the world of people as well as in the scriptures. Consciousness is my priniciple or real nature, I am the Purushottama. We are not referring to Krishna sharira or physical body, we are refering to Nirguna Krishna who is Chaitanya swaroopa.
यस्मात् अतः –Because and therefore. These words are generally used to indicate cause and effect. It shows that what has been indicated in the first half of the verse ,justifies the claim of the lord to the title of Purushottama.
VERSE – 15: 19
Glory of Purushottama Jnyana… 19 To 20
One who is free fom body attachment (delusion), worships me with his whole being
यो मामेवमसंमूढो जानाति पुरुषोत्तमम् ।
स सर्वविद्भजति मां सर्वभावेन भारत ॥१५:१९॥
yō māmēvamasaṁmūḍhō jānāti puruṣōttamam |
sa sarvavidbhajati māṁ sarvabhāvēna bhārata ||15:19||
यः माम् एवम् अमसंमूढः जानाति पुरुषोत्तमम् ।
सः सर्ववित् भजति माम् सर्वभावेन भारत ॥
यः –whoever माम् –me एवम् –thus असंमूढः –without a adoubt जानाति -knows, believes पुरुषोत्तमम् –as the supreme person सः -he सर्ववित् –all-knowing man भजति -woships माम् –me सर्वभावेन –with his whole being भारत –O descendent of Bharata (Arjuna)
O Descendent of Bharata (Arjuna), Those who know Me without doubt as the Supreme Divine spirit, truly have complete knowledge. O Arjuna, they worship Me with their whole being.
यः माम् एवम् असंमूढः जानाति पुरुषोत्तमम् –whosoever wise man thus realizes me as the supreme person. The word माम् does not refer to Krishna who is standing in front of Arjuna. It refers to the immanent, infinite Krishna Consciousness, the all pervading and supporting almighty, the greatest friend, and inner controller of all, the pure consciousness who has no form and attributes. The word एवम् means thus. It refers to what has been stated in the two previous verses. The wise man is convinced that God is superior to the ever changing world and the attractions it offers, or to the imprisoned soul in the body. He does not go after either of them. He has the choise to seek the Uttama Pursusha, the nirguna Brahman.
असंमूढः –undeluded, without doubt, a wise man.The undeluded is one who looks upon the physical BMI and PFT as not belonging to him and he is separate from them. He remains in the state of attachment to God.
सः सर्ववित्–Worshipping with sarvabhava or whole being does not stop with just sitting still and meditating. The sadhaka’s every thought and action is a worship. मद्भावेन, मत्कर्मक्रत् are other words used by the Lord. It is not that some works are mine and others are of God. All actions, perception, feeling and thought belong to Him. That is called working with whole being. यद्यत्करोमि सकलम् शम्भो तवाराधनम्, O Lord, whatever I do is your service. नारायणमिति समर्पयामि I offer as Narayana. By knowing Brahman alone he comes to know everything. He realizes me as Purushtottama the nirguna nirvikar, nirvikalpa chetanam.
सः सर्वभावेन माम् भजति –He prays to me in totality, whole heartedly. Worship is in the form of Knowledge that purushottama is none other than” I”, the atma chaitanya. Advaita bhakti. In the 7th chapter Krishna tells about four types of devotees. Here is the shloka
चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन
आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ ॥७:१६॥
Four types of virtuous ones worship me, O Arjuna. They are: – the distressed, the seeker of wealth, the seeker of self -knowledge, and the enlightened wise.
A jnyani worships in the from of highest bhakti.
VERSE – 15: 20
Arjuna, by practising the profound knowledge imparted to you, one becomes enlightened
इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयानघ ।
एतद्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत ॥१५:२०॥
iti guhyatamaṁ śāstramidamuktaṁ mayānagha |
ētad–buddhvā buddhimānsyātkr̥takr̥tyaśca bhārata ||15:20||
इति गुह्यतमम् शास्त्रम् इदम् उक्तम् मया अनघ ।
एतत् बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान् स्यात् कृतकृत्यः च भारत ॥
इति –thus, गुह्यतमम् –most secret शास्त्रम् –gospel, teaching इदम् -this उक्तम् –has been taught, imparted मया –by me अनघ –O sinless one एतत् -this बुद्ध्वा grasping in essence बुद्धिमान् –wise च –and क्रतकृत्यः –one who has accomplished all duties स्यात् –a man becomes भारत –O Descendent of Bharata (Arjuna)
Thus, O Sinless One (Arjuna) I have taught to you the most profound wisdom. Understanding it, a man becomes enlightened and his duties in life become successfully
अनघ भारत –Two adjectives are used; O sinless one and O the scion of Bharata dynasty. One who has knowledge of Purushottama becomes Anagha and Bharata.
इति गुह्यतम् शास्त्रम् इदम् उक्तम् मया अनघ -This teaching about Brhaman or ब्रह्मशास्त्र is the greatest secret not available easily. It is called ‘a Confidential science’. A wise man wears it like a golden wrist watch. He does not announce the time on hourly basis but tells the time when asked. All objective sciences are material sciences they are kshara vidya. They are apara vidya. Para vidya is the study of purushottama. Arjuna I have shared with you that secret. The Lord has explained this science to Krishna openly in the presence of thousands of armymen. Still he says, “I have explained the most secret transcendental science of the absolute. Then why it is a
secret?. It is called a secret because it is beyond the domain of the sense organs.
एतत् बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान् च क्रतकृत्यः स्यात् -may you receive and assimilate, may you become wise person. The object of every person is realization of God. Once that is done his mission is completed. The Lord lists out here the benefits of attaning Purushottma-state. The benefis are that one becomes wise and ultimatgely merges with God.
इति –Thus It is a practice to start a book with the opening word अथ (atha) and close it with the word इति. That means 15th chapter is virtualy the end of Gita. 17th, and 18th chapters are in the form of addendum and closing words.
शास्त्रम्: – Bhagavad Gita is a shastra but not a prakarana Grantha.
ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे
श्रीकृष्णार्जुन संवादे पुरुषोत्तमयोगो नाम पञ्चदशोऽध्यायः
Aum Tat Sat
In the Upanishad of the holy Bhagavad Gita – the discourse of Lord Krishna to Arjuna, which in the scriptures of yoga and the science of God realization—this is the Fifteenth chapter, called Purushottama Yoga.
Summary of 15th chapter
In the 13th and 14th chapters the Lord deals with the essential feature of Gita vz. Oneness of jiva and jagat. He continues this theme into the 15th chapter as well but in a different way. In the first two and half verses, Krishna gives a description of the endless samsara or jagat by comparing it with the mighty inverted mystic tree of Ashwatha. Like the tree of samsara it is vast, many branched, well rooted and not easily destructible. The eternal jiva or the soul is caught in the quagmire of samsara trying to escape the trap of wordly desires and attachments.
In the next two and half verses (upto 5th verse) Bhagwan talks about the means and methods to get out of this samsara.
The first step is to recognize the binding nature of the world. As long as the mind is engaged in wordly persuits, it is not available to seek freedom. Therefore the Lord says, in 15:3 असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा, cut off the attachment to samsara with the powerful tool of detachment or vairagya.
In the verse number 4, the lord sets the goal of life, that is realization of God. He says “ततः पदम् तत् परिमार्गितव्यम् ” He
describes this goal as one having reached which there is no return journey. It is our permanent destination.
Krishna highlights five prerequisites to reach this goal. This is explained in verse 5. Which says:
निर्मानमोहा जितसङ्गदोषा अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः ।
द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञै र्गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत् ॥१५:५॥
“That eternal goal is reached by the wise who are free from pride and delusion, who have conquered the evil of attachment, who are committed to vedantik enquiry, and who are freed from the pairs of opposites such as pleasure and pain”.
In the 6th verse the Lord talks about the nature of Brahman. He is the illuminator of all wordly lights such as the sun, moon and stars. In Vedanta, light means knowledge. In the light of knowledge all things become perceivable. Just by the presence of Brahman, we get the faculties of all the sense
organs. He is self effulgent and there is nothing which can illuminate him.
From 7th to 11th verse the lord shows that the Nirguna
Brahman or the sprit alone is in the form of individual soul or jiva. And from 12th to 15th verse the Lord explains that the same Nirguna Brahman is also in the form of world or jagat. That means every thing; jiva and jagat is a repository of Brahman. There is nothing other than him (7).
At the time of death the Jiva takes the mind and sense organs from one body to another body (8). It is the jiva who experiences everything through the sense organs (9). Thus the Lord alone is expressing in the form of every life and its functions in every being. (10) The pure minded ones recognize this whereas the deluded ones do not (11). This is the adhyatma अध्यात्मा svarupa of God. The world is a play of lord, he is the actor, he is the scene; he is the author and he is the spectator.
As already introduced above, from 12th to 15th verse, the Lord shows that he, the Brahman is the essence of jagat (universe). The light of the sun, the moon, the fire and the stars are the energy of the Lord (12). This light of consciousness is the adhidaivika swarupa of God. In the form of sunlight and moonlight he sustains all living beings (13). This is the adhibhautika आधिभैतिक swarupa of God. As the digestive fire it is the lord who digests all types of food. The lord alone is
behind all the mental faculties of knowledge, memory or loss of it (15). He is the author and content of Vedas (15).
The message Bhagawan gives us in these 9 verses from 7th to 15th is that Brahman alone is in the form of Jiva and Jagat. Hence reaching Brahman is in the form of understanding him—understanding that he is not far away he is just in the jiva and jagat that is in the midst of us.
In the three Shlokas from 16th to 18th, Bhagawan reveals his true nature. Brahman in the form of manifest nature or maya he is called Kshara Purusha, the one who is perishable. As the unmanifest universe he is called Akshara Purusha, the one who is imperishable. Purusha means one who resides in the body. Both these purushas are relative in existence. Beyond these Purushas is uttama Purusha or Purushottama. It is the attributeless, formless imperishable Brahman or spirit. He is called Paramatma or Supreme Purusha (17,18).
Concluding the teaching Krishna glorifies the spiritual knowledge as the means of fulfilment. With undeluded mind one who knows this knowledge of Purushottama, becomes the knower of all. He gets a sense of having completed his job for which he has come to this world (19, 20).